SQ HDM SLIT-tablet significantly increased serum HDM-specific IgG4 and IgE blocking factor, and significantly decreased early phase nasal symptoms after nasal allergen challenge. No significant effects on cytokines or gene expression in nasal mucosa were observed.
Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent forms of skin inflammation. Very often, we are exposed to mixtures of allergens with varying potencies, doses/areas, and exposure times. Therefore, improved knowledge about immune responses to combinations of contact allergens is highly relevant. In this article, we provide a general introduction to immune responses to contact allergens, and discuss the literature concerning immune responses to mixtures of allergens. According to the existing evidence, increased responses are induced following sensitization with combinations of allergens as compared with single allergens. The response to a mixture of allergens can be both additive and synergistic, depending on the dose and combination of allergens. Importantly, sensitization with combinations of either fragrance allergens or metal salts can result in increased challenge responses to specific allergens within the mixture. Taken together, the immune responses to mixtures of allergens are complex, and further studies are required to obtain the necessary knowledge to improve consumer safety.
AbstractText: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing guidelines for allergenimmunotherapy (AIT) for the management of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, IgE-mediated food allergy and venom allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we undertook systematic reviews to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions.
AbstractText: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) has produced Guidelines on AllergenImmunotherapy (AIT. We sought to gauge the preparedness of primary care to participate in the delivery of AIT in Europe AbstractText: We undertook a mixed-methods, situational analysis. This involved a purposeful literature search, and two surveys: one to primary care clinicians and the other ...
... review AbstractText: Advantages and drawbacks of pure and defined recombinant allergens and peptides over allergen extracts in the context of allergy research, diagnosis, and allergenimmunotherapy are discussed ... The possibility of prophylactic vaccination based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity are also discussed AbstractText: During ... sequences were determined, which led to a production of recombinant allergens that mimic biochemically and immunologically their natural counterparts.
Abstract: Regulatory approaches for allergenimmunotherapy (AIT) products and the availability of high-quality AIT products are inherently linked to each other... Several challenges for AIT products are apparent from this analysis and will require further consideration Keyword: allergenimmunotherapy. Keyword: allergic diseases. Keyword: allergy. Keyword: regulation.
OBJECTIVE: To review the manufacturing procedures of food allergen extracts and applicable regulatory requirements from government agencies, potential approaches to standardization, and clinical application of these products. The effects of thermal processing on allergenicity of common food allergens are also considered.
DATA SOURCES: A broad literature review was conducted on the natural history of food allergy, the manufacture of allergen extracts, and the allergenicity of heated food. Regulations, guidance documents, and pharmacopoeias related to food allergen extracts from the United States and Europe were also reviewed.
STUDY SELECTIONS: Authoritative and peer-reviewed research articles relevant to the topic were chosen for review. Selected regulations and guidance documents are current and relevant to food allergen extracts.
RESULTS: Preparation of a food allergen extract may require careful selection and identification of source materials, grinding, defatting, extraction, clarification, sterilization, and product testing. Although extractions for all products licensed in the United States are performed using raw source materials, many foods are not consumed in their raw form. Heating foods may change their allergenicity, and doing so before extraction may change their allergenicity and the composition of the final product.
CONCLUSION: The manufacture of food allergen extracts requires many considerations to achieve the maximal quality of the final product. Allergen extracts for a select number of foods may be inconsistent between manufacturers or unreliable in a clinical setting, indicating a potential area for future improvement.
... MS method is valuable for absolute quantification of allergens in GCr extracts and likely has broader applicability to other complex allergen extracts. Definitive quantification provides a new standard for labelling of allergen extracts, which will inform patient care, enable personalized therapy, and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for environmental and food allergies Keyword: German cockroach allergens. Keyword: LC-MRM MS.
Clinical trials of oral immunotherapy (OIT) are strengthened by using standardized peanut preparations with defined doses of major allergens AbstractText: This article describes measurement of Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 in peanut foods and in peanut flour extracts used for allergy diagnosis and OIT AbstractText ...
However, the majority of allergen candidates could not be assigned as clear orthologs to known mite allergens. The genomic sequence data, predicted proteome, and allergen homologs identified from E. maynei provide insight into the relationships among astigmatid mites and their allergens, which should allow for the development of improved diagnostics and immunotherapy.
A key aim in the cancer field is therefore to design interventions that can break immunological tolerance and halt cancer progression, whereas on the contrary allergenimmunotherapy exactly aims to induce tolerance. In this position paper, we review insights on immune tolerance derived from allergy and from cancer inflammation, focusing on what is known about the roles of key immune ...
AbstractText: Subcutaneous allergenimmunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis... Keyword: allergenimmunotherapy. Keyword: allergoid. Keyword: dose-finding. Keyword: placebo-controlled double-blind study. Keyword: rhinoconjunctivitis. Keyword: subcutaneous immunotherapy. Keyword: type-1 allergy.
In presence of high allergen dosis besides IgE also IgG antibodies can induce allergic reactions, whose severity is dependent on the induced type of IgG Fc glycosylation, what should be considered for new AIT protocols containing new adjuvants.