AIMS: Few studies have examined the long-term outcome of carpal tunnel release (CTR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient-reported long-term outcome of CTR for electrophysiologically severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the long-term outcome of 40 patients with bilateral severe CTS who underwent 80 CTRs (46 open, 34 endoscopic) between 2002 and 2012. The outcomes studied were patient-reported outcomes of numbness resolution, the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) score, and patient satisfaction.
RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 9.3 years. Complete resolution of numbness was reported by 93.8% of patients, persistent numbness by 3.8%, and recurrent numbness by 2.5%. The mean BCTQ symptom score was 1.1 (sd 0.3; 1.0 to 2.55) and the mean Boston function score was 1.15 (sd 0.46; 1.0 to 3.5). 72.5% of patients were asymptomatic and had no functional impairment. Men had poorer outcomes than women and patients < 55 years had poorer outcomes than patients ≥ 55 years. All patients who had undergone endoscopic CTR reported complete resolution of numbness compared with 89.1% of those who had undergone open release (p = 0.047). There was no significant difference in outcome between dominant and non-dominant hands. Patient satisfaction rates were good. There were no adverse events.
CONCLUSION: CTR has a favourable outcome and good rates of satisfaction, even in patients with bilateral severe CTS at a mean of nine years after surgery. Endoscopic CTR has a higher rate of numbness resolution than open surgery. There were no significant differences in outcome between the dominant and non-dominant hand. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1348-53.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Hypesthesia (6), Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (4), more mentions
Research is intended to verify if thermal imaging can be used in diagnosing and monitoring the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).This disease is not easy to diagnose using traditional methods. Also, the difficulties in monitoring carpal tunnel surgery effects necessitate new, noninvasive method, which gives more information.The research group consists of 15 patients with CTS and control group of healthy people. All patients who were examined before surgery were also tested 4 weeks after surgery, to check the effects of treatment. In addition a lot of our patients had or will have open carpel tunnel release surgery. Diagnosis of CTS was performed by thermal imaging in both hands from phalanges to the area of the wrist on the external and palmar side of the palm.Using infrared (IR) camera one can observe high temperature gradient on hand-tested areas and these differences prove the diagnosis. Moreover patients after surgery have better temperature distribution and it was closer to control group. Results prove that surgery is the best, and currently, the only method to treat CTS.Thermal imaging may be helpful in diagnosing CTS.
Although cases of axial fracture-dislocations are reported in the literature, there are few reports of a patient who suffered a combined perilunate injury with an ulnar axial dislocation of the hand. This case report describes the anatomical injury and operative treatment of a patient who suffered this injury and discusses the importance of associated soft tissue management.
... professional Australian Rules Football players after fixation of a non-thumb metacarpal fracture was safe and effective AbstractText: A total of 16 patients ... 25 years (19 to 30) identified as having a non-thumb metacarpal fracture underwent open reduction and internal plate and screw fixation ... Our data suggest that professional athletes who sustained a non-thumb metacarpal fracture can safely return to professional play without restriction two weeks ...
The transcription factor ZEB1 has gained attention in tumor biology of epithelial cancers because of its function in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, DNA repair, stem cell biology and tumor-induced immunosuppression, but its role in gliomas with respect to invasion and prognostic value is controversial. We characterized ZEB1 expression at single cell level in 266 primary brain tumors and present a comprehensive dataset of high grade gliomas with Ki67, p53, IDH1, and EGFR immunohistochemistry, as well as EGFR FISH. ZEB1 protein expression in glioma stem cell lines was compared to their parental tumors with respect to gene expression subtypes based on RNA-seq transcriptomic profiles. ZEB1 is widely expressed in glial tumors, but in a highly variable fraction of cells. In glioblastoma, ZEB1 labeling index is higher in tumors with EGFR amplification or IDH1 mutation. Co-labeling studies showed that tumor cells and reactive astroglia, but not immune cells contribute to the ZEB1 positive population. In contrast, glioma cell lines constitutively express ZEB1 irrespective of gene expression subtype. In conclusion, our data indicate that immune infiltration likely contributes to differential labelling of ZEB1 and confounds interpretation of bulk ZEB1 expression data.
Oncology (2) Neoplasms (9), Glioma (5), Glioblastoma (3), more mentions
AbstractText: When diagnosing wrist ligamentous injury, we hypothesize that MRI is used injudiciously and is associated with unnecessary cost AbstractText: A retrospective review was conducted of patients, ages 20-60 years, who underwent an MRI for possible wrist ligamentous injury at a tertiary care center between 2009 and 2014. Treatment recommendation was classified as non-operative, operative, or equivocal.
... radiography and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in acute traumatic wristinjuries AbstractText: One hundred sixty-eight patients with acute wrist trauma ... still remains as the first screening tool in acute traumatic wristinjuries and MDCT is complementary to it and used as a ... problem-solving tool or for preoperative planning Keyword: Acute traumatic wristinjuries.
OBJECTIVES: Accurate assessment of zone II partial flexor tendon lacerations in the finger is clinically important. Surgical repair is recommended for lacerations of greater than 50% to 60%. Our goal was to evaluate ultrasonographic test characteristics and accuracy in identifying partial flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric model.
METHODS: From fresh-frozen above-elbow human cadaveric specimens, 32 flexor digitorum profundus tendons were randomly selected to remain intact or receive low- or high-grade lacerations involving 10% to 40% and 60% to 90% of the radioulnar width within Verdan Zone II, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasonography using a linear array 14-MHz transducer was performed by a blinded musculoskeletal radiologist. Sensitivities, specificities, and other standard test performance metrics were calculated. Actual and measured percentages of tendon laceration were compared by the paired t test.
RESULTS: After randomization, 24 tendons were lacerated (12 low- and 12 high-grade), whereas 8 remained intact. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence versus absence of a partial laceration were 0.54 and 0.75, respectively, with positive and negative likelihood ratio values of 2.17 and 0.61. For low-grade lacerations, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.25 and 0.85, compared to 0.83 and 0.85 for high-grade lacerations. Ultrasonography underestimated the percentage of tendon involvement by a mean of 18.1% for the study population as a whole (95% confidence interval, 9.0% to 27.2%; P < .001) but accurately determined the extent for correctly diagnosed high-grade lacerations (-6.7%; 95% confidence interval, -18.7% to 5.2%; P = .22).
CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography was useful in identifying and characterizing clinically relevant high-grade zone II partial flexor digitorum profundus lacerations in a cadaveric model.
INTRODUCTION: The management of finger deep burns is still problematic for the surgeon. Due to the fineness and the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, after excision there is an important risk of exposure of the underlying tissue like bone, nerve or tendons. Local flaps (random pattern flap and pedicle flap) allowed ensuring a good quality covering with a tissue with many advantages (good thickness, sensitivity). On the contrary of all other techniques, flaps can be used independently from the vascular quality of the wound bed. Despite those advantages, the literature is poor to report the experience of flap in the management of finger deep burn.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report our experience in the use of such technique with a series of 49 flaps. The cohort consisted of 34 patients (22 men and 12 women) who were treated in our unit between 2003 and 2012.
RESULTS: Of the 49 flaps made, 71,4% were homodactyl flaps. 22,5% were heterodactyl flaps and 6,1% were intermetacarpian (second space) flaps. The rate of success was 87,8%. We reviewed 16 patients out of 34 patients operated, 20 of the 49 flaps performed (40,8%). The patients were reviewed by an independent surgeon. The average follow-up at this consultation was 4,25±2,46 years. The monofilament test was positive for 17 flaps (85% of cases). For the Weber's test, we found a normal perception threshold for 11 flaps (55%), with an average test at 2,8mm (2-4mm). Normal motricity was found at the donor site in 14 of the 16 patients evaluated for 18 of the 20 revised flaps (90% of cases). In terms of cosmetic result, the average overall score obtained at the patient's own evaluation was 0.85. That obtained by the evaluator was equal to 0.55, with no significant difference (scale range from 0 best results to 5 worse results).
DISCUSSION: Hand and finger burns are frequent and benefit from rapid, high-quality coverage, enabling early mobilization to combat secondary stiffness problems. The high success rate of our series, as well as the quality of the functional and cosmetic results obtained, demonstrate the reliability and the interest of the digital flaps.
PURPOSE: Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) represents a major source of functional morbidity. The effects of early CMC OA on loading and use patterns potentially lead to changes in local bone density and microarchitecture. Hounsfield units (HU), a quantitative attenuation coefficient obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, have been shown to be a reliable marker of bone density. We hypothesized that early CMC OA is associated with lower local bone density about the CMC joint as assessed by HU.
METHODS: We examined HU units from CT scans in 23 asymptomatic subjects and 91 patients with early CMC OA. The HU measurements were obtained within cancellous portions of the trapezium, capitate, first and third metacarpal bases, and distal radius. Linear regression models, with age and sex included as covariates, were used to assess the relationship between CMC OA and HU values at each anatomical site.
RESULTS: Early OA patients had significantly lower HU than asymptomatic subjects within the trapezium (mean, 377 HU vs 436 HU) and first metacarpal bases (265 HU vs 324 HU). No significant group differences were noted at the capitate, third metacarpal, or distal radius. Male sex and younger age were associated with significantly higher HU at all the anatomical sites, except the first metacarpal base, where age had no significant effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Subjects presenting with early CMC OA had significantly lower bone density as assessed with HU at the thumb CMC joint (trapezium and first metacarpal base). Early thumb CMC OA and discomfort may lead to diminished loading across the basal joint, producing focal disuse osteopenia. These findings in symptomatic early arthritis suggest a relationship between symptoms, functional use of the CMC joint, and local bone density.
TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic II.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (4) Osteoarthritis (3), Osteopenia (1), Arthritis (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of rehabilitation for patients who underwent CMC-1 arthroplasty, with emphasis on early active mobilization.
DATA SOURCES/STUDY SELECTION: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for articles written in English that described postoperative regime (including immobilization period/method and/or description of exercises/physical therapy, follow-up ≥six weeks) on CMC-1 arthroplasty.
DATA EXTRACTION: The PRISMA statement was used as guidance in this review and methodological quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Randomized studies were additionally scored using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-seven studies were included, concerning 1015 participants in whom 1118 surgical procedures were performed. A summary on the components of postoperative rehabilitation used in the included studies on CMC-1 OA is presented for different surgical interventions. We found that early active recovery (including short immobilization, early initiation of ROM and strength exercises) provides positive outcomes on pain, limitations in ADL and grip & pinch strength, but comparative studies are lacking. Furthermore, three postoperative exercises/therapy phases were identified in the literature: the 'acute phase', the 'unloaded phase' and the 'functional phase', but again comparative studies are lacking.
CONCLUSIONS: Early active recovery is used more often in the literature and does not lead to worse outcomes or more complications. This systematic review provides guidance for clinicians in the content of postoperative rehabilitation on CMC-1 arthroplasty. The review also clearly identifies the almost complete lack of high quality, comparative studies on postoperative rehabilitation after CMC-1 arthroplasty.
Abstract: Acute scaphoid fractures are common wristinjuries that continue to elicit debate from surgeons regarding the most appropriate diagnostic and management algorithms. This review will examine the current literature and trends, in an attempt to provide the reader with an evidence-based discussion regarding current controversies of interest to clinicians.
The risks of corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome, principally intraneural injection and tendon rupture, are known only from anecdotal reports. The literature does not allow an accurate estimate of their incidence or that of lesser side effects such as local pain. We have encountered only four serious complications in 9515 injections. We asked patients about possible side effects at routine follow-up, 6 weeks after 689 injections with 40 mg triamcinolone. Possible side effects were reported after 33% of injections. The commonest was short-lived local pain, which occurred in 13% of injected limbs, all cases having resolved within 3 weeks. No cases of intraneural injection or tendon rupture occurred, even after repeated injection. Most adverse effects were transient, but 13 hands exhibited persistent skin depigmentation or subcutaneous atrophy. This data provides the best current estimate of the risks of carpal tunnel injection and may be used to inform patients considering this intervention.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare disease that uncommonly affects the upper extremity. A 46-year-old African American man presented for evaluation of a right middle finger mass. Excisional biopsy demonstrated extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the soft tissues. We performed a transmetacarpal ray resection.
Little is known about treatment effect of carpal tunnel release in patients with clinically defined carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), but normal electrodiagnostic test results (EDX). The aim of this study was to determine whether this category of patients will benefit from surgical treatment. 57 patients with clinically defined CTS and normal EDX were randomized for surgical treatment (n = 39) or non-surgical treatment (n = 18). A six-point scale for perceived improvement as well as the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was completed at baseline and at follow-up after 6 months. A significant improvement of complaints was reported by 70.0% of the surgically treated patients and 39.4% reported full recovery 6 months after surgery. Furthermore, both Functional Status Score and Symptom Severity Score improved significantly more in the surgically treated group (p = 0.036 and p < 0.001, respectively). This study demonstrates that most patients with clinically defined CTS and normal EDX results will benefit from carpal tunnel release. Therefore, this group of CTS patients must not a priori be refrained from surgery.
OBJECTIVE: Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) involves mechanical compression and irritation of the ulnar nerve (UN) caused by environmental and dynamic abnormalities that can however also be found in asymptomatic patients. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we aimed to assess and compare the relevance of morphological and dynamic variants of the UN and its surrounding structures (UN abnormalities) in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.
METHOD: UN abnormalities in patients with UNE were assessed using high-resolution ultrasound and compared against unaffected arms (patients or healthy volunteers).
RESULTS: We studied 234 arms of 117 individuals (89 with UNE and 145 control). Eighty-one percent of the arms with UNE compared to 40% of control (p=0.00001) showed UN abnormalities. While it was dislocated in 49% of arms with UNE compared to in 23% of control (p=0.004).
CONCLUSION: The two-fold higher frequency of occurrence of UN abnormalities in arms with UNE indicates their causative or at least contributory role in such neuropathies. High-resolution ultrasound should be part of the initial evaluation of UNE in order to assess the etiology of the conflict.
PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review to document ethical concerns regarding human upper extremity (UE) allotransplantation and how these concerns have changed over time.
METHODS: We performed a systematic review of 5 databases to find manuscripts addressing ethical concerns related to UE allotransplantation. Inclusion criteria were papers that were on the topic of UE allotransplantation, and related ethical concerns, written in English. We extracted and categorized ethical themes under the 4 principles of bioethics: Autonomy, Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, and Justice. We assessed theme frequency by publication year using Joinpoint regression, analyzing temporal trends, and estimating annual percent change.
RESULTS: We identified 474 citations; 49 articles were included in the final analysis. Publication years were 1998 to 2015 (mean, 3 publications/y; range, 0-7 publications/y). Nonmaleficence was most often addressed (46 of 49 papers; 94%) followed by autonomy (36 of 49; 74%), beneficence (35 of 49; 71%), and justice (31 of 49; 63%). Of the 14 most common themes, only "Need for More Research/Data" (nonmaleficence) demonstrated a significant increase from 1998 to 2002.
CONCLUSIONS: Upper extremity transplantation is an appealing reconstructive option for patients and physicians. Its life-enhancing (vs life-saving) nature and requirement for long-term immunosuppression have generated much ethical debate. Availability of human data has influenced ethical concerns over time. Our results indicate that discussion of ethical issues in the literature increased following publication of UE transplants and outcomes as well as after meetings of national societies and policy decisions by regulatory agencies.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Because UE transplantation is not a life-saving procedure, much ethical debate has accompanied its evolution. It is important for UE surgeons considering referring patients for evaluation to be aware of this discussion to fully educate patients and help them make informed treatment decisions.
Gene suppression approaches have emerged over the last 20 years as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. These include RNA interference and anti-sense oligonucleotides, both of which act at the post-transcriptional level, and genome-editing techniques, which aim to repair the responsible mutant gene. All serve to inhibit the expression of disease-causing proteins, leading to the potential prevention or even reversal of the disease phenotype. In this review we summarise the main developments in gene suppression strategies, using examples from Huntington's disease and other inherited causes of neurodegeneration, and explore how these might illuminate a path to tackle other proteinopathy-associated dementias in the future.
Neurological and Central Nervous System Diseases (1) Neurodegenerative Diseases (1), Huntington Disease (1), more mentions