AbstractText: To evaluate the outcome of revision surgery for failed thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty AbstractText: We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients with failed thumb CMC arthroplasty ... without ligament reconstruction was an effective treatment for failed CMC arthroplasty of the thumb AbstractText: Therapeutic IV Keyword: Thumb carpometacarpal arthritis... Keyword: thumb carpometacarpal arthroplasty.
PURPOSE: The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the 12-month postoperative Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) total score between patients with osteoarthritis (OA) at the first carpometacarpal (CMC I) joint who underwent trapeziectomy with suspension-interposition arthroplasty using the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon and those receiving a human dermal collagen template (allograft).
METHODS: We included 60 patients with CMC I OA who met the indications for surgery. They were randomized into 1 of 2 groups: trapeziectomy using the FCR tendon or trapeziectomy with the allograft for suspension-interposition. Patients completed a set of questionnaires including the MHQ and were clinically assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Complications were recorded.
RESULTS: We operated on 29 patients using the FCR tendon; 31 patients received an allograft. Baseline MHQ total scores significantly increased from 51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-56) to 83 (95% CI, 78-87) and 53 (95% CI, 47-58) to 76 (95% CI, 69-84) by 12 months in the FCR and allograft groups, respectively. We found similar outcomes for both groups at all follow-up assessments. Five complications occurred in the FCR group, and 10 in the allograft group. Revision surgery was required for one allograft patient.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of the FCR tendon or allograft for trapeziectomy with suspension-interposition arthroplasty in patients with CMC I OA leads to similar outcomes with more complications, mainly tendon irritations, associated with the latter. Therefore, we only use the allograft in cases of severe instability requiring a larger amount of suspension-interposition material or for revision procedures after failed suspension-interposition with the FCR tendon.
TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic I.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (2) Osteoarthritis (2), more mentions
... to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of a cementless wristarthroplasty with minimum 5-year follow-up in nonrheumatoid patients AbstractText ... stage arthritis changes received an uncemented ball-and-socket total wristarthroplasty (Motec Wrist... prior to 10 years of observation AbstractText: An uncemented total wristarthroplasty can provide long-lasting unrestricted hand function in young and ...
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (2) Osteolysis (1), Infections (1), Osteoarthritis (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to examine the performance of sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements, in the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CuTS).
DATA SOURCE: Electronic databases, comprising of PubMed and Embase, were searched for the pertinent literature before July 2017.
STUDY SELECTION: Fourteen trials comparing the ulnar nerve CSA measurements between participants, with and without CuTS, were included.
DATA EXTRACTION: Study design, participants' demographics, diagnostic reference of CuTS and methods of CSA measurement.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Among different elbow levels, the between-group difference in CSA was the largest at the medial epicondyle [6.0 mm(2) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-7.4)]. The pooled mean CSA from the healthy participants was 5.5 mm(2) (95%CI: 4.4-6.6) at the arm level, 7.4 mm(2) (95% CI: 6.7-8.1) at the cubital tunnel inlet, 6.6 mm(2) at the medial epicondyle (95% CI: 5.9-7.2), 7.3 mm(2) (95%CI: 5.6-9.0) at the cubital tunnel outlet, and 5.5 mm(2) (95% CI: 4.7-6.3) at the forearm level. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios pooled from 5 studies, using 10 mm(2) as the cut-off point, were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78-0.90), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94), and 53.96 (95% CI: 14.84-196.14), respectively.
CONCLUSION: The ulnar nerve CSA measured by US imaging is useful for the diagnosis of CuTS, and is most significantly different between patients and controls at the medial epicondyle. As the ulnar nerve CSA in normal subjects, at various locations, rarely exceeds 10 mm(2), this value can be considered as a cut-off point to diagnose ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow region.
PURPOSE: To demonstrate which structures of the extensor mechanism create a boutonniere deformity, when damaged, in a cadaver model. An analysis of how damage to these anatomical structures affects the biomechanical performance of the extensor mechanism was also performed.
METHODS: We secured 18 fresh cadaveric hands onto an apparatus consisting of a computer-controlled motor and tensiometer attached in series to the extensor communis tendon of the ring and middle digits. The central slip, transverse, and oblique fibers of the interosseous hood and the triangular ligament were sequentially divided. After each structure was divided, the motors were activated to provide a constant tendon displacement force. The angular displacement at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal joints was recorded.
RESULTS: In all digits, detachment of the central slip from the middle phalanx produced a decrease in extension of the PIP joint. When the transverse and oblique fibers of the interosseous hood were also divided, extension at the PIP joint was further decreased. A boutonniere deformity occurred only when all 3 structures were damaged.
CONCLUSIONS: The boutonniere deformity requires subluxation of the lateral bands volar to the axis of rotation of the PIP joint. This study demonstrates that damage to the central slip alone does not cause the deformity. Combined injury of the central slip, triangular ligament, and transverse and oblique fibers of the interosseous hood causes a boutonniere deformity.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Division of the central slip leads to loss of extension at the PIP joint. A more substantial loss of extension after injury or development of a boutonniere deformity should alert clinicians that other structures of the extensor mechanism are also damaged.
This article reviews historical background, essential practice principles, and the new emerging area of wide awake hand surgery. It outlines the reasons that wide awake, local anaesthesia, no tourniquet surgery has emerged so quickly in the last 10 years over the world. I explain the origin of the concepts and some of the challenges of getting the technique accepted; in particular, the debunking of the myth of epinephrine danger in the finger. I review the most recent developments in several operations in this rapidly changing field of the tourniquet-free approach. Finally, this review includes speculations on the future of this technique.
This controlled prospective study assessed the effectiveness of night splinting compared with non-splinting and surgery for severity of insomnia in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Sleep characteristics were observed for several days without a brace, with a brace and after surgery. The sleep measurements included the use of an actigraph worn on the wrist during night, a 'sleep log' that conveyed subjective impressions as to how the patient had slept and a short insomnia instrument, the Insomnia Severity Index. The Insomnia Severity Index scores showed that a night splint significantly improved insomnia symptoms compared with no splinting, and surgery significantly improved insomnia symptoms compared with splinting. The sleep log scores showed that the sleep quality and the number of awakenings when a splint was not worn were significantly different from the scores with the splint and the scores after surgery but showed no differences between splint and surgery. The actigraph did not show any significant differences between the treatment methods.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.
PURPOSE: To determine the role of night orthosis use after surgical correction of Dupuytren contracture.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, OTSeeker, and CENTRAL for articles published from inception of the databases to August 2015. Assessment was undertaken by 2 independent reviewers (O.A.S. and S.A.). Methodological quality of randomized controlled trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa instrument.
RESULTS: Seven studies met the standard for inclusion in this review. A total of 659 patients across these 7 studies were included in the analysis, with follow-up ranging from 3 to 72 months. None of the included studies assessed recurrence. The analysis revealed no significant improvement in range of motion of hand joints for patients who received a static night orthosis after Dupuytren surgery compared with patients without an orthosis. Similarly, no differences were found in patient-reported functional status across the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The current literature does not appear to support the use of static night orthosis in addition to hand therapy after surgical correction of Dupuytren contracture.
TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic IV.
Toe-to-finger transplantation is intimately related to the development of microsurgical free tissue transplantation, which is one of the most important advances in the history of reconstructive surgery. It is also generally acknowledged that a mangled hand with massive tissue loss and amputation of multiple digits presents a challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. In this retrospective study we reviewed 11 cases of primary one-stage post-traumatic reconstruction of complex fingerless hands using a combination of toe-to-finger and free tissue transplantation performed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University affiliated Sixth People's Hospital and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine affiliated Ninth People's Hospital from January 2001 to November 2014. Primary healing was achieved in 10 cases, while in the other case partial flap loss was documented and secondary healing was achieved by skin grafting. We concluded from this study that, by selecting suitable patients, use of a combination of toe-to-finger and free tissue transplantation may provide an alternative option for mangled hand salvage with satisfactory functional and esthetic results.
OBJECTIVES: To provide an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of conservative and (post)-surgical interventions for trigger finger, Dupuytren's -, and De Quervain's disease.
DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PEDro, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL were searched to identify relevant systematic reviews and RCTs.
DATA SELECTION AND EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality.
DATA SYNTHESIS: A best-evidence synthesis was performed to summarize the results.
RESULTS: Two reviews (trigger finger, Quervain's) and 37 RCTs (trigger finger(8), Dupuytren's(14), Quervain's (15)) were included. The trials reported on oral medication (Dupuytren's), physiotherapy (Quervain's) injections and surgical treatment (trigger finger, Dupuytren's, Quervain's), other conservative (Quervain's), and postsurgical treatment (Dupuytren's). Moderate evidence was found for the effect of corticosteroid injection on the very short-term for trigger finger, De Quervain's disease, and for injections with Collagenase on the very short-term (30 days) when looking at all joints, no evidence was found when looking at the PIP joint for Dupuytren's disease. A thumb-splint as additive to a corticosteroid injections seem to be effective (moderate evidence) for De Quervain's diseae (short-, midterm). For Dupuytren's disease use of a corticosteroid injection within a Percutaneous Needle Aponeurotomy in midterm, and Tamoxifen versus a placebo before/after a fasciectomy seems to promising (moderate evidence). We also found moderate evidence for splinting after Dupuytren's surgery in short-term.
CONCLUSIONS: In recent years more and more RCTs have been conducted to study treatment of the above-mentioned hand disorders. However, more high-quality RCTs are still needed in order to further stimulate evidence-based practice for patients with trigger finger, Dupuytren's disease, and De Quervain's disease.
De Quervain Disease (4), Contracture (1), Trigger Finger Disorder (1), more mentions
The aim of this study was to review the literature of decompression of the cubital tunnel with medial epicondylectomy and to assess outcomes and complications. Twenty-one case series reported on 886 medial epicondylectomies. The mean percentage of patients obtaining improvement of one or more McGowan grade was 79%. The mean percentage obtaining a good/excellent Wilson Krout grade of outcome was 83%. Of six comparative studies, two showed no significant differences in outcomes between medial epicondylectomy and transposition procedures, and three reported better outcomes with medial epicondylectomy. One reported similar outcomes with medial epicondylectomy and simple decompression. The existing literature on medial epicondylectomy is of limited methodological quality and does not allow for firm conclusions to be drawn regarding its efficacy compared with other surgical techniques. Further studies should aim for high methodological quality, randomized comparison with simple decompression or anterior transposition and should utilize standardized outcome measures.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
BACKGROUND: To determine the safety and efficacy of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for the treatment of palmar Dupuytren disease nodules.
METHODS: In this 8-week, double-blind trial, palpable palmar nodules on one hand of adults with Dupuytren disease were selected for treatment. Patients were randomly assigned using an interactive web response system to receive a dose of 0.25 mg, 0.40 mg, or 0.60 mg (1:1:1 ratio) and then allocated to active treatment (CCH) or placebo (4:1 ratio). All patients and investigators were blinded to treatment. One injection was made in the selected nodule on Day 1. Caliper measurements of nodule length and width were performed at screening and at Weeks 4 and 8. Investigator-reported nodular consistency and hardness were evaluated at baseline and Weeks 1, 4, and 8. Investigator-rated patient improvement (1 [very much improved] to 7 [very much worse]) and patient satisfaction were assessed at study end.
RESULTS: In the efficacy population (n = 74), percentage changes in area were significantly greater with CCH 0.40 mg (-80.1%, P = 0.0002) and CCH 0.60 mg (-78.2%, P = 0.0003), but not CCH 0.25 mg (-58.3%, P = 0.079), versus placebo (-42.2%) at post-treatment Week 8. Mean change in nodular consistency and hardness were significantly improved with CCH versus placebo at Weeks 4 and 8 (P ≤ 0.0139 for all). At Week 8, investigator global assessment of improvement was significantly greater with CCH 0.40 mg and 0.60 mg (P ≤ 0.0014) but not statistically significant with CCH 0.25 mg versus placebo (P = 0.13). Most patients were "very satisfied" or "quite satisfied" with CCH 0.40 mg and 0.60 mg. Contusion/bruising (50.0% to 59.1%) was the most common adverse event with CCH treatment.
CONCLUSION: In patients with Dupuytren disease, a single CCH injection significantly improved palmar nodule size and hardness. The safety of CCH was similar to that observed previously in patients with Dupuytren contracture.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02193828 . Date of trial registration: July 2, 2014 to December 5, 2014.
The two main surgical options for patients with persistent or recurrent cubital tunnel syndrome are subcutaneous and submuscular transposition. We retrospectively analysed the results of 34 patients with recalcitrant cubital tunnel syndrome who underwent submuscular transposition with musculofascial lengthening at our institutions. Of the 34 patients, 21 improved clinically after submuscular transposition with musculofascial lengthening, of which 16 were still satisfied at a mean follow-up of four years. In addition, all articles published between 1974 and January 2015 on subcutaneous and/or submuscular transposition of the ulnar nerve for recalcitrant cubital tunnel syndrome were reviewed. We found that previously published studies on this subject are too heterogeneous to compare. No recommendation can thus be made regarding the surgical technique for persistent or recurrent cubital tunnel syndrome. Our series shows that the musculofascial lengthening technique for submuscular transposition is a good option. More research is needed to compare the different surgical treatments.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the scaphoid account for the most commonly injured carpal bone. Minimally displaced fractures of the waist will heal in 85-90% when using a below elbow cast. However, fractures with displacement have a higher risk for nonunion. Therefore, open reduction and fixation with headless compression screws (HCS) have become the preferred method of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcome of unstable scaphoid B2 type fractures, stabilized using one or two headless compression screws.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 47 unstable scaphoid B2 type fractures were included in this retrospective follow-up study. Twelve patients were not accessable and three refused to attend follow-up checks. Therefore, a total of 32 patients were included in this study with a mean follow-up interval of 43 (12-81) months. Twenty-two patients were treated using one HCS and ten with two HCS. Clinical assessment included range of motion (ROM), pain according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), grip strength, Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score, Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation Score, Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire and modified Green O'Brien Wrist Score. The follow-up study on each patient included a CT-Scan of the wrist which was analyzed for union, osteoarthritis, dorsiflexed intercalated segment instability and humpback deformity.
RESULTS: Radiologically, 29/32 (91%) of the scaphoid B2 type fractures showed union, 10/10 (100%) in the two HCS group and 19/22 (86%) in the one HCS group (p < 0.05). No significant differences could be found in respect to ROM, grip strength, VAS and scores between the groups. Screw removal was necessary in two patients in the two HCS group and one in the one HCS group.
CONCLUSION: The unstable B2 type fractures of the scaphoid, when using two HCS without bone grafting is a safe method, shows a significantly higher union rate and equal clinical outcome compared to stabilization using only one HCS.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Osteoarthritis (1), more mentions
PURPOSE: Gradual onset diseases (eg, carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trapeziometacarpal arthrosis) tend to go unnoticed for years. When a slowly progressive disease transitions from asymptomatic to symptomatic, it may seem like an acute event. The primary aim of this study was to determine the percentage of patients who perceive the slowly progressive disease as having started within 1 year. We also hypothesized that (1) there would be no factors associated with perception of an onset of disease within 1 year, more specifically among patients with advanced disease; and (2) there would be no difference in a decision to pursue operative treatment between patients who perceived the onset of the disease to be recent and those who perceived it to be long-standing.
METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 732 patients newly diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 114), cubital tunnel syndrome (n = 276), or trapeziometacarpal arthrosis (n = 342), for the onset of symptoms. Multiple factors were assessed for (1) association with perception of disease onset within 1 year, and (2) choice for operative treatment in bivariate and multivariable analyses.
RESULTS: A total of 69% of all subjects and 68% of patients with advanced disease perceived the disease as having started within 1 year. A perceived provocation (such as an injury or surgery) was associated with a perception of recent onset. A decision to pursue operative treatment was not different between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Slowly progressive diseases are often misperceived as relatively new.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Effective communication strategies are important to ensure that people make choices consistent with their values and not based on misconceptions.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (2) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (2), Cubital Tunnel Syndrome (2), more mentions
The study aims at assessing the changes in electroencephalography (as measured by the A-phases of cyclic alternating pattern) and autonomic activity (based on pulse wave amplitude) at the recovery of airway patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Analysis of polysomnographic recordings from 20 male individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was carried out in total sleep time, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep. Scoring quantified the combined occurrence (time range of 4 s before and 4 s after respiratory recovery) or separate occurrence of A-phases (cortical activation), and pulse wave amplitude drops (below 30%) to apneas, hypopneas or flow limitation events. A dual response (A-phase associated with a pulse wave amplitude drop) was the most frequent response (71.8% in total sleep time) for all types of respiratory events, with a progressive reduction from apneas to hypopneas and flow limitation events. The highly significant correlation in total sleep time (r = 0.9351; P < 0.0001) between respiratory events combined with A-phases and respiratory events combined with pulse wave amplitude drops was confirmed both in non-rapid eye movement (r = 0.9622; P < 0.0001) and rapid eye movement sleep (r = 0.7162; P < 0.0006). In conclusion, a dual cortical and autonomic activation is the most common manifestation at the recovery of airway patency. The significant correlation between A-phases and relevant pulse wave amplitude drops suggests a possible role of pulse wave amplitude as a marker of cerebral response to respiratory events.
The objective of this study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of two surgical techniques in patients with severe unilateral idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 117 patients were randomized in two groups. In the experimental group ( n = 59) reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament was performed after open retinaculum release (TCL reconstruction group). In the control group ( n = 58) only retinaculum release was performed (TCL release group). The primary outcome measure was grip strength; secondary outcome measures were pain and response to the Boston questionnaire. Significance was analysed using the t-test or Mann-Whitney test. At 6 months, the experimental group showed clinical and statistically significant improvement in grip strength and decrease in symptom severity. Retinaculum release with reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament results in improvement of grip strength in the medium term when compared with open retinaculotomy in patients with severe unilateral idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
The clinical application and regulatory strategy of genome editing for ex vivo cell therapy is derived from the intersection of two fields of study: viral vector gene therapy trials; and clinical trials with ex vivo purification and engraftment of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells, T cells, and tumor cell vaccines. This article covers the regulatory and translational preclinical activities needed for a genome editing clinical trial modifying hematopoietic stem cells and the genesis of this current strategy based on previous clinical trials using genome-edited T cells. The SB-728 zinc finger nuclease platform is discussed because this is the most clinically advanced genome editing technology.
PURPOSE: This study primarily aimed to demonstrate the screw-home rotation of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and the function of surrounding ligaments during thumb oppositional motion.
METHODS: A 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the thumb CMC joint was conducted using data derived from computed tomography of 9 healthy volunteers. Scans were obtained in the neutral forearm and wrist position and the thumb in maximum radial abduction, maximum palmar abduction, and maximum opposition. The movements of the first metacarpal and the palmar and dorsal bases on the trapezium during thumb oppositional motion from radial abduction through palmar abduction were quantified using a coordinate system originating on the trapezium. In addition to the kinematic analyses, the length of virtual ligaments, including the anterior oblique, ulnar collateral, dorsal radial, dorsal central (DCL), and posterior oblique ligament (POL), were calculated at each thumb position.
RESULTS: From radial abduction to opposition of the thumb through palmar abduction, the first metacarpal was abducted, internally rotated, and flexed on the trapezium. The palmar base of the first metacarpal moved in the palmar-ulnar direction, and the dorsal base moved in the palmar-distal direction along the concave surface of the trapezium. Although the DCL and POL lengthened, the lengths of other ligaments did not change significantly.
CONCLUSIONS: During thumb oppositional motion, internal rotation of the first metacarpal occurred, with the palmar base rotating primarily with respect to the dorsal base. The DCL and POL may be strained in thumb functional positions.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Kinematic variables indicated a screw-home rotation of the thumb CMC joint and the contribution of the dorsal ligaments to the stability of the rotation on the pivot point.