The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally.
Laboratory networks were established to provide accurate and timely laboratory confirmation of infections, an essential component of disease surveillance systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including polio, measles and rubella, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus, and invasive bacterial diseases. In addition to providing high-quality laboratory surveillance data to help guide disease control, elimination, and eradication programs, these global networks provide capacity-building and an infrastructure for public health laboratories. There are major challenges with sustaining and expanding the global laboratory surveillance capacity: limited resources and the need for expansion to meet programmatic goals. Here, we describe the WHO-coordinated laboratory networks supporting VPD surveillance and present a plan for the further development of these networks.
Vaccines (3) Measles (4), Rubella (4), Poliomyelitis (4), more mentions
DescriptorName: Antibodies, Viral... DescriptorName: Measles virus... DescriptorName: Rubella virus. DescriptorName: Sensitivity and Specificity. Abstract: In Canada, measles was eliminated in 1998 and rubella in 2000. Effective measles and rubella surveillance is vital in elimination settings, hinging on reliable laboratory methods. However, low-prevalence settings affect the predictive value of laboratory tests.
BACKGROUND: High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in males is a health issue with implications for HPV-related lesions in their partners. The identification of risk factors for male infection may improve our understanding of HR-HPV transmission and prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between lifestyle, genital warts and HR-HPV infection. The study was focused on men with an increased risk of HR-HPV infection: male sexual partners of women diagnosed with high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions.
METHODS: Men were enrolled and prospectively recruited within the first six months after diagnosis of cervical lesions in their female partners (n = 175, 2013-2016). Epidemiological and sexual behaviour data were obtained. The presence of genital warts was established by visual inspection. Detection and genotyping of HR-HPV infection in genital samples were performed with a Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. All HR-HPV positive men were offered a follow-up exam at 12 months. SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The prevalence of HR-HPV infection in men was 45.1% (79/175). Genital warts were observed in 10.3% (18/175) of the subjects. Detection of genital warts (OR 3.5, p = 0.015), smoking habits (OR 2.3, p = 0.006) and sexual debut before 16 years old (OR 2, p = 0.035) were associated with an increased risk for HR-HPV infection (univariate analysis). This association was also observed for genital warts and smoking status in a multivariate analysis. The same genotype was found after one year in 71.4% (20/28) of subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genital warts and smoking habits seem to be associated with a higher risk of HR-HPV infection in males. Earlier sexual debut may increase this risk. Extensive knowledge of the natural history of HR-HPV infection in males is an absolute requirement for the design and implementation of prevention strategies for the general population as well as for specific populations such as couples after treatment for high-grade cervical lesions.
Infections (9), Condylomata Acuminata (7), Papillomavirus Infections (1), more mentions
DescriptorName: Adult. DescriptorName: Antibodies, Viral... AbstractText: Co-infections with human herpesvirus (HHV) have been associated with residual chronic inflammation in antiretroviral (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the role of HHV in modulating the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals is poorly understood.
Infectious Diseases (1), Immune System Diseases (1) Coinfections (6), HIV Infections (1), Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (1), more mentions
Background: In 2015, a large nationwide measles outbreak occurred in Mongolia, with very high incidence in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar and among young adults.
Methods: We conducted an outbreak investigation including a matched case-control study of risk factors for laboratory-confirmed measles among young adults living in Ulaanbaatar. Young adults with laboratory-confirmed measles, living in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, were matched with 2-3 neighborhood controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted matched odds ratios (aMORs) for risk factors, with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: During March 1-September 30, 2015, 20 077 suspected measles cases were reported; 14 010 cases were confirmed. Independent risk factors for measles included being unvaccinated (adjusted matched odds ratio [aMOR] 2.0, P < .01), being a high school graduate without college education (aMOR 2.6, P < .01), remaining in Ulaanbaatar during the outbreak (aMOR 2.5, P < .01), exposure to an inpatient healthcare facility (aMOR 4.5 P < .01), and being born outside of Ulaanbaatar (aMOR 1.8, P = .02).
Conclusions: This large, nationwide outbreak shortly after verification of elimination had high incidence among young adults, particularly those born outside the national capital. In addition, findings indicated that nosocomial transmission within health facilities helped amplify the outbreak.
Measles (7), Hospital Infections (1), Infections (1), more mentions
Patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections (CAEBV) present with cutaneous manifestations including hydroa vacciniforme-like ... cases of CAEBV treated in our hospital and histopathologically characterized the skin lesions of 3 of those cases, including one case with haemophagocytosis. This is a novel report of CAEBV with haemophagocytosis in the skin.
The skin is the site of dengue virus (DENV) transmission following the bite of an infected mosquito, but the contribution of individual cell types within skin to infection is unknown ... Virus inoculation led to recruitment and infection of Langerhans cells, macrophages and dermal DC, and these cells emigrated from skin in increased numbers as a result of infection ...
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with subtypes that can be distinguished on the basis of clinical, immunophenotypic, morphologic, and molecular characteristics. The genital tract as a primary site for NHL is very rare (1).
Oncology (2) Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (2), Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Control groups in previous case-control studies of vaccine-preventable diseases have included people immune to disease. This study examines risk factors for measles acquisition among adults 20 to 49 years of age in Tianjin, China, and compares findings using measles IgG antibody-negative controls to all controls, both IgG-negative and IgG-positive.
METHODS: Measles cases were sampled from a disease registry, and controls were enrolled from community registries in Tianjin, China, 2011-2015. Through a best subsets selection procedure, we compared which variables were selected at different model sizes when using IgG-negative controls or all controls. We entered risk factors for measles in two separate logistic regression models: one with measles IgG-negative controls and the other with all controls.
RESULTS: The study included 384 measles cases and 1,596 community controls (194 IgG-negative). Visiting a hospital was an important risk factor. For specialty hospitals, the odds ratio (OR) was 4.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28, 16.03) using IgG-negative controls, and OR = 5.27 (95% CI: 2.73, 10.18) using all controls. Variables, such as age or length of time in Tianjin, were differentially selected depending on the control group. Individuals living in Tianjin ≤3 years had 2.87 (95% CI: 1.46, 5.66) times greater odds of measles case status compared to all controls, but this relationship was not apparent for IgG-negative controls.
CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that case-control studies examining risk factors for infectious diseases, particularly in the context of transmission dynamics, consider antibody-negative controls as the gold standard.
DescriptorName: Antibodies, Viral. DescriptorName: Disease Outbreaks. DescriptorName: Female. DescriptorName: History, 21st Century. DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Immunoglobulin M. DescriptorName: Male. DescriptorName: Measles. DescriptorName: Population Surveillance. DescriptorName: Sensitivity and Specificity. DescriptorName: Uganda. AbstractText: Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system ...
We used transmission-dynamic modeling to estimate the added effectiveness of vaccinating multiple cohorts of females (12-26 years) in Australia compared to the theoretical introduction of routine-only (12-13 years) vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccinating multiple cohorts produced markedly faster direct/herd effects, and added benefits that last for 20-70 years. Furthermore, the number needed to vaccinate to prevent one anogential warts case (AGW) or cervical cancer (CC) was similar for routine+catch-up (AGW=9.9,CC=678) and routine-only vaccination (AGW=9.9,CC=677), thus providing similar levels of efficiency per person vaccinated.
Oncology (1) Warts (1), Uterine Cervical Neoplasms (1), more mentions
... examined the association of 4 human herpesviruses (CMV, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpesvirus type 6, and Epstein-Barr virus) with change in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) over 3 years ... CMV, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human herpesvirus 6 infection were independently associated ... year LTL attrition, with no association found for Epstein-Barr virus.
Infectious Diseases (2), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1) Infections (3), Herpes Simplex (2), Herpesviridae Infections (2), more mentions
RASGRP1 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor essential for MAP-kinase mediated signaling in lymphocytes. We report the second case of RASGRP1 deficiency in a patient with a homozygous nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of the protein. The patient had epidermodysplasia verruciformis, suggesting a clinically important intrinsic T cell function defect. Like the previously described patient, our proband also presented with CD4(+) T cell lymphopenia, impaired T cell proliferation to mitogens and antigens, reduced NK cell function, and EBV-associated lymphoma. The severity of the disease and the development of EBV lymphoma in both patients suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be performed rapidly in patients with RASGRP1 deficiency.
Lymphoma (3), Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis (2), Lymphopenia (1), more mentions
I read with great interest a preliminary study on new treatment for common warts conducted by Kolk et al.(1) The authors studied, for the first time, the clinical response of common warts to topical application of a fixed dose of 980 mg topical gel containing 0.125% (w/w) digoxin and 0.125% (w/w) furosemide for 7 consecutive days on the patients' lower back. Basically, topical therapy for a common dermatosis is generally welcomed particularly if showed a higher degree of safety profile and less potential off-target adverse effects. Though promising, few queries should be addressed by the authors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Safety was assessed by occurrence and severity of local skin reactions (LSRs) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs... 8 patients (57.1%) had AGW recurrence 12 weeks after clearance AbstractText: Ingenol mebutate gel was associated with a high number of AEs and withdrawals due to painful local and adjacent skin reactions.