The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally.
Laboratory networks were established to provide accurate and timely laboratory confirmation of infections, an essential component of disease surveillance systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including polio, measles and rubella, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus, and invasive bacterial diseases. In addition to providing high-quality laboratory surveillance data to help guide disease control, elimination, and eradication programs, these global networks provide capacity-building and an infrastructure for public health laboratories. There are major challenges with sustaining and expanding the global laboratory surveillance capacity: limited resources and the need for expansion to meet programmatic goals. Here, we describe the WHO-coordinated laboratory networks supporting VPD surveillance and present a plan for the further development of these networks.
Vaccines (3) Measles (4), Rubella (4), Poliomyelitis (4), more mentions
DescriptorName: Bacteriological Techniques. DescriptorName: Dermatology... DescriptorName: SkinDiseases, Bacterial. DescriptorName: SkinDiseases, Viral... Abstract: Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections are frequently encountered in clinical practice, resulting in numerous cutaneous manifestations... This article examines the utility of bedside tests for the diagnosis of viral, bacterial, and fungal infections... Keyword: slit-skin.
BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is one of the most commonly used therapeutic modalities to treat anogenital warts (AGWs), but this treatment was not clearly established in the recent international recommendations.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of cryotherapy versus other AGW treatments.
METHODS: Through a systematic search of 12 electronic databases, we identified 11 randomized controlled trials, screened from database inception through October 2016, that met the inclusion criteria (including immunocompetent adults with AGWs receiving cryotherapy in 1 of the comparison groups). Primary endpoint was complete clearance of AGW. Risk-for-bias assessment was based on Cochrane Handbook recommendations. Meta-analyses used Review Manager v5.3 software.
RESULTS: Cryotherapy efficacy did not appear to differ from that of trichloroacetic acid, podophyllin, or imiquimod. Electrosurgery was weakly associated with better AGW clearance than cryotherapy (risk ratio [RR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.99). Cryotherapy was associated with more immediate low-level adverse events (erythema, stinging, or irritation; RR 3.02, 95% CI 1.38-6.61) and immediate pain requiring oral analgesics (RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.07-4.17) but fewer erosions (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.90).
LIMITATIONS: All but 1 randomized-controlled trial had a high risk for bias.
CONCLUSION: With low-level quality of the evidence, cryotherapy is an acceptable first-line therapy to treat AGWs.
RASGRP1 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor essential for MAP-kinase mediated signaling in lymphocytes. We report the second case of RASGRP1 deficiency in a patient with a homozygous nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of the protein. The patient had epidermodysplasia verruciformis, suggesting a clinically important intrinsic T cell function defect. Like the previously described patient, our proband also presented with CD4(+) T cell lymphopenia, impaired T cell proliferation to mitogens and antigens, reduced NK cell function, and EBV-associated lymphoma. The severity of the disease and the development of EBV lymphoma in both patients suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be performed rapidly in patients with RASGRP1 deficiency.
Lymphoma (3), Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis (2), Lymphopenia (1), more mentions
Measles virus spread across the EUR by mobile groups has recently led ... monitoring the elimination process and verifying the interruption of endemic virus transmission, molecular surveillance has to provide valid and representative data... 2016 has shown that the expertise for measles and rubella virus genotyping exists in all parts of the EUR.
Circumcised men are less likely to have distal penile warts, any HPV or high-risk HPV detected. Urine is likely to be an alternative sampling method for HPV-6/11 surveillance programme in men in countries with low circumcision rates Keyword: HPV. Keyword: circumcision. Keyword: genital warts. Keyword: human papilloma virus. Keyword: men. Keyword: surveillance. Keyword: urine.
Warts (9), Condylomata Acuminata (6), Papilloma (1), more mentions
The significantly higher efficacy of low-dose alpha-interferon compared with placebo was based on a single trial, and our confidence in the effect estimates rated as 'low'. Overall, we found no reliable evidence favouring the systemic use of interferon after ablative treatment of AGW Keyword: condylomata acuminata. Keyword: human papilloma virus. Keyword: interferon. Keyword: meta-analysis.
Immune System Diseases (1) Warts (2), Condylomata Acuminata (1), Papilloma (1), more mentions
... about 90% of people are infected with the herpes simplex virus, 30% of whom will experience recurrent herpes simplex labialis, commonly ... study groups apply the treatment five times daily until their skin returns to normal or for 14 days, whichever occurs first... is time (in days) from randomisation to return to normal skin.
... pain, touch, pressure, and many other somatosensory modalities to the central nervous system. The ganglion is also a reservoir for latent herpes virus 1 infection... The samples were also characterized for transcripts derived from viral and microbial genomes. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) antibodies in blood were measured using the luciferase immunoprecipitation assay... Keyword: herpes simplex virus. Keyword: migraine.
OBJECTIVES: Estimate the prevalence of genital warts (GW) and GW-related healthcare resource use and costs among male and female patients seeking treatment in South Korea.
DESIGN: To estimate GW prevalence, physicians in five major South Korean regions recorded daily logs of patients (n=71 655) seeking care between July 26 and September 27, 2011. Overall prevalence estimates (and 95% CIs) were weighted by the estimated number of physicians in each specialty and the estimated proportion of total patients visiting each specialist type. Healthcare resource use was compared among different specialties. Corresponding p values were calculated using Mann-Whitney U tests.
SETTING: The database covers 5098 clinics and hospitals for five major regions in South Korea: Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon.
PARTICIPANTS: Primary care physicians (general practice/family medicine), obstetricians/gynaecologists, urologists and dermatologists with 2-30 years' experience.
RESULTS: The estimated overall GW prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 0.8%). Among women, GW prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.7%); among men prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.0%), peaking among patients aged 18-24 years. Median costs for GW diagnosis and treatment for male patients were US$58.2 (South Korean Won (KRW) ₩66 857) and US$66.3 (KRW₩76 113) for female patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The estimated overall GW prevalence in South Korea was 0.7% and was higher for male patients. The overall median costs associated with a GW episode were higher for female patients than for male patients.
... common warts, HPV type did not play a role, but cryotherapy was less effective when the wart showed callus and was located deeper in the skin AbstractText: Morphological characteristics of the warts and the HPV genotype influence treatment outcome and thus potentially influence future treatment decisions for common and plantar warts.
... examined the association of 4 human herpesviruses (CMV, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpesvirus type 6, and Epstein-Barr virus) with change in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) over 3 years ... CMV, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human herpesvirus 6 infection were independently associated ... year LTL attrition, with no association found for Epstein-Barr virus.
Infectious Diseases (2), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1) Infections (3), Herpes Simplex (2), Herpesviridae Infections (2), more mentions
... present a transformational approach to genome engineering of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which has a large DNA genome ... the adjacent pieces, we assembled the fragments into a complete virus genome in yeast, transferred it into an Escherichia coli host, and reconstituted infectious virus following transfection into mammalian cells ... The virus derived from this yeast-assembled genome, KOS(YA), replicated with kinetics similar to wild-type virus ...
Infectious Diseases (2), Vaccines (1) Herpes Simplex (2), more mentions