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Menopause
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Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure, or termination of the menstrual life. From Stedman's Online Medical Dictionary

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PLoS medicine
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional differences in MD by age and menopausal status in over 11,000 breast-cancer-free women aged 35-85 years, from 40 ethnicity- and location-specific population groups across 22 countries in the International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD). MD was read centrally using a quantitative method (Cumulus) and its square-root metrics were analysed using meta-analysis of group-level estimates and linear regression models of pooled data, adjusted for body mass index, reproductive factors, mammogram view, image type, and reader. In all, 4,534 women were premenopausal, and 6,481 postmenopausal, at the time of mammography. A large age-adjusted difference in percent MD (PD) between post- and premenopausal women was apparent (-0.46 cm [95% CI: -0.53, -0.39]) and appeared greater in women with lower breast cancer risk profiles; variation across population groups due to heterogeneity (I2) was 16.5%. Among premenopausal women, the √PD difference per 10-year increase in age was -0.24 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.14; I2 = 30%), reflecting a compositional change (lower dense area and higher non-dense area, with no difference in breast area). In postmenopausal women, the corresponding difference in √PD (-0.38 cm [95% CI: -0.44, -0.33]; I2 = 30%) was additionally driven by increasing breast area. The study is limited by different mammography systems and its cross-sectional rather than longitudinal nature. CONCLUSIONS: Declines in MD with increasing age are present premenopausally, continue postmenopausally, and are most pronounced over the menopausal transition. These effects were highly consistent across diverse groups of women worldwide, suggesting that they result from an intrinsic biological, likely hormonal, mechanism common to women. If cumulative breast density is a key determinant of breast cancer risk, younger ages may be the more critical periods for lifestyle modifications aimed at breast density and breast cancer risk reduction.
Oncology (5), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1)
Breast Neoplasms (4), Neoplasms (1), more mentions
2. Osteoporosis.  
Date: 08/01/2017
Annals of internal medicine
Osteoporosis is a common systemic skeletal disorder resulting in bone fragility and increased fracture risk. However, management of osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies are often not addressed by primary care clinicians, even in older patients with recent fractures. Evidence-based screening strategies will improve identification of patients who are most likely to benefit from drug treatment to prevent fracture. In addition, careful consideration of when pharmacotherapy should be started and choice of medication and duration of treatment will maximize the benefits of fracture prevention while minimizing potential harms of long-term drug exposure.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (6)
Osteoporosis (5), more mentions
Obstetrics and gynecology
OBJECTIVE: To examine the cumulative incidence of subsequent ovarian cancer among young women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer who had ovarian conservation at surgical treatment. METHODS: This retrospective study examined the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify women aged younger than 50 years who underwent hysterectomy with ovarian conservation for stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer between 1983 and 2013. Time-dependent risk of ovarian cancer diagnosed during the follow-up after endometrial cancer diagnosis was examined. RESULTS: Among 1,322 women in the study cohort, 16 women developed subsequent ovarian cancer with 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Median time to develop subsequent ovarian cancer was 2.4 years, and the majority of subsequent ovarian cancer was diagnosed within the first 3 years from the diagnosis of endometrial cancer (68.8%). The majority of subsequent ovarian cancer was endometrioid type (81.3%) and stage I disease (75.0%). With a median follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were no ovarian cancer deaths. Younger age at endometrial cancer diagnosis was significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent ovarian cancer (10-year cumulative incidences: age younger than 40 compared with 40-49 years, 2.6% compared with 0.4%, hazard ratio 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-15.7, P=.002). CONCLUSION: Young women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer have an approximately 1% risk of developing subsequent ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy that was associated with favorable tumor factors resulting in good ovarian cancer-specific survival. Our results endorse the importance of genetic testing and close follow-up when counseling about this procedure, especially for those who are younger than 40 years.
Oncology (19)
Ovarian Neoplasms (12), Endometrial Carcinoma (7), Neoplasms (2), more mentions
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Atrial fibrillation and menopause: something else to worry about, or not?.
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), Women's Health (2)
Atrial Fibrillation (2), more mentions
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Quality of life of menopausal women with genital urinary menopause syndrome..
Women's Health (2), more mentions
Bipolar disorders
... of mood changes in women with bipolar disorder during peri-menopause and post-menopause AbstractText: A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with Preferred ... retrospective data was the most commonly used method to record menopause status AbstractText: The impact of menopause on illness course for women with bipolar disorder is largely ...
Women's Health (12), Neuroscience (6)
Bipolar Disorder (6), Depressive Disorder (1), more mentions
Obstetrics and gynecology
DescriptorName: Anxiety Disorders. DescriptorName: Female. DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Menopause. DescriptorName: Pregnancy. DescriptorName: Pregnancy Complications. Abstract: The management of psychiatric disorders in women is complicated by reproductive life cycle events. Psychiatric disorders can be initiated or exacerbated during times of hormonal change (such as menarche, the premenstrual period, the postpartum period, and perimenopause), and during the childbearing years, treatment is complicated ...
Women's Health (2)
Anxiety Disorders (4), Pregnancy Complications (1), more mentions
The American journal of clinical nutrition
Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water.Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported.Results: Of 64,850 women, 4675 developed diabetes over an average of 8.4 y of follow-up. ASBs and SSBs were both associated with an increased risk of DM with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.36) comparing ASB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to never or <3 serving/mo, and an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.75) comparing SSB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to <1 serving/wk (1 serving = one 12-ounce can or 355 mL). Subgroup analysis found an increased risk of DM associated with ASBs only in the obese group. Modeling the substitution of SSBs with an equal amount of ASBs did not significantly reduce the risk of developing DM. However, statistically substituting 1 serving of ASBs with water was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99), whereas substituting 1 serving of SSBs with water was associated with a risk reduction of 10% (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95).Conclusions: ASBs were associated with a 21% increased risk of developing DM, approximately half the magnitude of SSBs (associated with a 43% increased risk). Replacing ASBs and SSBs with water could potentially reduce the risk. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results as causal because both residual confounding and reverse causation could explain these results.
Endocrine Disorders (5), Women's Health (3), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1)
Diabetes Mellitus (5), more mentions
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
... history, review of systems, physical examination, and various laboratory and imaging modalities, all of which are discussed in the 2 articles in this continuing medical education series. This article reviews flushing associated with fever, hyperthermia, emotions, menopause, medications, alcohol, food, hypersensitivity reactions, rosacea, hyperthyroidism, dumping syndrome, superior vena cava syndrome, and neurologic etiologies Keyword: SVC syndrome... Keyword: menopause. Keyword: rosacea.
Women's Health (2)
Rosacea (2), Dumping Syndrome (2), Hyperthyroidism (2), more mentions
The American journal of clinical nutrition
Background: Female age-related estrogen deficiency increases the risk of osteoporosis, which can be effectively treated with the use of hormone replacement therapy. However, hormone replacement therapy is demonstrated to increase cancer risk. Bioavailable isoflavones with selective estrogen receptor affinity show potential to prevent and treat osteoporosis while minimizing or eliminating carcinogenic side effects.Objective: In this study, we sought to determine the beneficial effects of a bioavailable isoflavone and probiotic treatment against postmenopausal osteopenia.Design: We used a novel red clover extract (RCE) rich in isoflavone aglycones and probiotics to concomitantly promote uptake and a favorable intestinal bacterial profile to enhance isoflavone bioavailability. This was a 12-mo, double-blind, parallel design, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial of 78 postmenopausal osteopenic women supplemented with calcium (1200 mg/d), magnesium (550 mg/d), and calcitriol (25 μg/d) given either RCE (60 mg isoflavone aglycones/d and probiotics) or a masked placebo [control (CON)].Results: RCE significantly attenuated bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the L2-L4 lumbar spine vertebra (P < 0.05), femoral neck (P < 0.01), and trochanter (P < 0.01) compared with CON (-0.99% and -2.2%; -1.04% and -3.05%; and -0.67% and -2.79, respectively). Plasma concentrations of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide was significantly decreased in the RCE group (P < 0.05) compared with CON (-9.40% and -6.76%, respectively). RCE significantly elevated the plasma isoflavone concentration (P < 0.05), the urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OH) to 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OH) ratio (P < 0.05), and equol-producer status (P < 0.05) compared with CON. RCE had no significant effect on other bone turnover biomarkers. Self-reported diet and physical activity were consistent and differences were nonsignificant between groups throughout the study. RCE was well tolerated with no adverse events.Conclusions: Twice daily RCE intake over 1 y potently attenuated BMD loss caused by estrogen deficiency, improved bone turnover, promoted a favorable estrogen metabolite profile (2-OH:16α-OH), and stimulated equol production in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. RCE intake combined with supplementation (calcium, magnesium, and calcitriol) was more effective than supplementation alone. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02174666.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (7), Oncology (1)
Osteopenia (3), Osteoporosis (2), Neoplasms (1), more mentions