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Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure, or termination of the menstrual life. From Stedman's Online Medical Dictionary

Your search returned 15 results
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The New England journal of medicine 
BACKGROUND: Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and inhibits sclerostin, increases bone formation, and decreases bone resorption. METHODS: We enrolled 4093 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a fragility fracture and randomly assigned them in a 1:1 ratio to receive monthly subcutaneous romosozumab (210 mg) or weekly oral alendronate (70 mg) in a blinded fashion for 12 months, followed by open-label alendronate in both groups. The primary end points were the cumulative incidence of new vertebral fracture at 24 months and the cumulative incidence of clinical fracture (nonvertebral and symptomatic vertebral fracture) at the time of the primary analysis (after clinical fractures had been confirmed in ≥330 patients). Secondary end points included the incidences of nonvertebral and hip fracture at the time of the primary analysis. Serious cardiovascular adverse events, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical femoral fractures were adjudicated. RESULTS: Over a period of 24 months, a 48% lower risk of new vertebral fractures was observed in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group (6.2% [127 of 2046 patients]) than in the alendronate-to-alendronate group (11.9% [243 of 2047 patients]) (P<0.001). Clinical fractures occurred in 198 of 2046 patients (9.7%) in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group versus 266 of 2047 patients (13.0%) in the alendronate-to-alendronate group, representing a 27% lower risk with romosozumab (P<0.001). The risk of nonvertebral fractures was lower by 19% in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group than in the alendronate-to-alendronate group (178 of 2046 patients [8.7%] vs. 217 of 2047 patients [10.6%]; P=0.04), and the risk of hip fracture was lower by 38% (41 of 2046 patients [2.0%] vs. 66 of 2047 patients [3.2%]; P=0.02). Overall adverse events and serious adverse events were balanced between the two groups. During year 1, positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular adverse events were observed more often with romosozumab than with alendronate (50 of 2040 patients [2.5%] vs. 38 of 2014 patients [1.9%]). During the open-label alendronate period, adjudicated events of osteonecrosis of the jaw (1 event each in the romosozumab-to-alendronate and alendronate-to-alendronate groups) and atypical femoral fracture (2 events and 4 events, respectively) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who were at high risk for fracture, romosozumab treatment for 12 months followed by alendronate resulted in a significantly lower risk of fracture than alendronate alone. (Funded by Amgen and others; ARCH number, NCT01631214 .).
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (6), Cardiovascular Diseases (1)
Osteoporosis (4), Osteonecrosis (2), Cardiovascular Diseases (1), more mentions
JAMA internal medicine 
Importance: Sexual dysfunction, an important determinant of women's health and quality of life, is commonly associated with declining estrogen levels around the menopausal transition. Objective: To determine the effects of oral or transdermal estrogen therapy vs placebo on sexual function in postmenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants: Ancillary study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), a 4-year prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of menopausal hormone therapy in healthy, recently menopausal women. Of 727 KEEPS enrollees, 670 agreed to participate in this multicenter ancillary study. Women were 42 to 58 years old, within 36 months from last menstrual period. Data were collected from July 2005 through June 2008 and analyzed from July 2010 through June 2017. Interventions: Women were randomized to either 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE), 50 µg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2), or placebo. Participants also received 200 mg oral micronized progesterone (if randomized to o-CEE or t-E2) or placebo (if randomized to placebo estrogens) for 12 days each month. Main Outcomes and Measures: Aspects of sexual function and experience (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI; range, 0-36 points; higher scores indicate better sexual function). Low sexual function (LSF) was defined as an FSFI overall score of less than 26.55. Distress related to low FSFI score (required for the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) was not evaluated. Results: The 670 participants had a mean (SD) age of 52.7 (2.6) years. The t-E2 treatment was associated with a significant yet moderate improvement in the FSFI overall score across all time points compared with placebo (average efficacy, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.11-4.10; adjusted P = .002). With o-CEE treatment, there was no significant difference in FSFI overall score compared with placebo (mean efficacy, 1.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 2.8; adjusted P = .13). There was no difference in FSFI overall score between the t-E2 and o-CEE groups on average across 48 months (adjusted P = .22). In the individual domains of sexual function, t-E2 treatment was associated with a significant increase in mean lubrication (0.61; 95% CI, 0.25-0.97; P = .001) and decreased pain (0.67; 95% CI, 0.25-1.09; P = .002) compared with placebo. Overall, the proportion of women with LSF was significantly lower after t-E2 treatment compared with placebo (67%; 95% CI, 55%-77% vs 76%; 95% CI, 67%-83%; P = .04). For o-CEE there was no significant reduction in the odds of LSF. Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment with t-E2 modestly improved sexual function in early postmenopausal women, but whether it relieved symptoms of distress is not known. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT00154180.
Women's Health (5), more mentions
Mayo Clinic proceedings
DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Menopause... These changes are a result of aging, decreasing estrogen levels after menopause, and other unique influences in menopausal women that interfere with the adoption of healthy lifestyle measures. Central obesity, in particular, results in several adverse metabolic consequences, including dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Given that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in ...
Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (5), Cardiovascular Diseases (3), Women's Health (2)
Abdominal Obesity (2), Cardiovascular Diseases (2), Mood Disorders (2), more mentions
DescriptorName: Endophenotypes. DescriptorName: Female. DescriptorName: Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. DescriptorName: Glucose. DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. DescriptorName: Male. DescriptorName: Menopause. DescriptorName: Middle Aged. DescriptorName: Multimodal Imaging. DescriptorName: Organ Size. DescriptorName: Positron-Emission Tomography. DescriptorName: Radiopharmaceuticals. DescriptorName: Risk. DescriptorName: Sex Characteristics. AbstractText: This observational multimodality brain imaging study investigates emergence of endophenotypes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) risk during endocrine transition ...
Women's Health (1)
Alzheimer Disease (3), more mentions
Annals of internal medicine
Review: In menopause (intact uterus), estrogen + progestogen, isoflavones, and black cohosh reduce hot flashes..
Women's Health (2), more mentions
AIDS (London, England)
OBJECTIVE: Although postmenopausal women have behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV infection, the activity of pre-exposure prophylaxis agents in older adults has not been well studied. DESIGN: We used an ex-vivo approach to compare the tissue concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) and emtricitabine triphosphate (FTCtp) in cervical tissues from premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHOD: Cervical explants from 16 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women were incubated in 10-300 μg/mL tenofovir or emtricitabine for 24 hours. Explants were then snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored until analysis. TFVdp and FTCtp were quantified using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Active metabolite concentrations of TFVdp were >9-fold lower in postmenopausal explants (p < 0.05). The percentage of TFV converted to TFVdp in preM explants was 0.0038 (BLQ-0.5886) compared to 0.0004 (BLQ-0.0706) in postM explants. The majority of FTCtp concentrations were below the limit of quantification. For both TFVdp and FTCtp there was a a trend for more unquantifiable concentrations in postmenopausal vs premenopausal (TFV: 38% vs 21%, p = 0.2; FTC: 71% vs 52%, p = 0.2). CONCLUSION: These findings could have implications in the use of nucleotide-based PrEP strategies targeted to older women. If validated in vivo, lower exposures of active nucleoside/tide metabolites could mean postmenopausal women need higher doses of tenofovir-based PrEP to achieve protective efficacy.
Women's Health (1)
HIV Infections (1), more mentions
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 
Context: Postmenopausal estradiol therapy (ET) can reduce the stress response. However, it remains unclear whether such reductions can mitigate effects of stress on cognition. Objective: Investigate effects of ET on cortisol response to a physical stressor, cold pressor test (CPT), and whether ET attenuates stress effects on working memory. Design: Women completed the CPT or control condition across two sessions and subsequently completed a sentence span task. Setting: General community: participants were recruited from the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE). Patients or Other Participants: ELITE participants (Mage=66, SDage=6.8) in this study did not suffer from any major chronic illness or use medications known to affect the stress response or cognition. Interventions: Participants had received a median of randomized 4.7 years of estradiol (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) treatment at time of participation in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Salivary cortisol and sentence span task performance. Results: Women assigned to estradiol exhibited blunted cortisol responses to CPT compared to placebo (p = .017), and lesser negative effects of stress on working memory (p = .048). Conclusions: We present novel evidence suggesting ET may protect certain types of cognition in the presence of stress. Such estrogenic protection against stress hormone exposure may prove beneficial to both cognition and the neural circuitry that maintains and propagates cognitive faculties.
Neuroscience (4), Women's Health (1), more mentions
Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 
... women may have been misclassified with an earlier age at menopause if being underweight led to amenorrhea AbstractText: In one of ... examine a variety of adiposity measures and risk for early menopause, our findings that women who were underweight in early or mid-adulthood had elevated risk for early menopause can assist in efforts to better understand the etiology of early menopause ...
Women's Health (19), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (3), more mentions
American journal of epidemiology
Abstract: Menopause before age 45 affects roughly 5%-10% of women and is ... Smoking may increase early menopause risk; however, evidence is inconsistent, and data regarding smoking amount, duration ... A dose-response relation between smoking and early natural menopause risk, and reduced risk among quitters, may provide insights into the ...
Women's Health (6), more mentions
Obstetrics and gynecology
DescriptorName: Anxiety Disorders. DescriptorName: Female. DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Menopause. DescriptorName: Pregnancy. DescriptorName: Pregnancy Complications. Abstract: The management of psychiatric disorders in women is complicated by reproductive life cycle events. Psychiatric disorders can be initiated or exacerbated during times of hormonal change (such as menarche, the premenstrual period, the postpartum period, and perimenopause), and during the childbearing years, treatment is complicated ...
Women's Health (2)
Anxiety Disorders (4), Pregnancy Complications (1), more mentions
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Limited data exist on the association between menopause and atrial fibrillation (AF... at baseline and had not undergone hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy prior to menopause... relative hazards for AF were lower among women with younger age at menopause but did not differ significantly from women with the oldest menopausal age ...
Women's Health (4), Cardiovascular Diseases (3)
Atrial Fibrillation (2), Cardiovascular Diseases (1), more mentions
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
No Abstract Available
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (2), Basal Cell Carcinoma (2), more mentions
... from baseline to post-treatment were found in placebo-acupuncture group AbstractText: Acupuncture can contribute to a clinically relevant improvement in the short-term treatment of PMI, both subjectively and objectively AbstractText: Acupuncture for peri-menopause Insomnia: a randomized controlled trial, Keyword: Menopause.
Sleep Disorders (7), Women's Health (2)
Sleep Disorders (1), more mentions
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH
... Essentials It is unknown how regular exercise affects platelet function after menopause... only AbstractText: Background The risk of atherothrombotic events increases after the menopause... it is unknown how regular exercise affects platelet function after the menopause... prostacyclin, which may counterbalance the increased atherothrombotic risk associated with the menopause Keyword: menopause.
Women's Health (5), more mentions
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
... fibrosis begins in perimenopause, highlighting a previously unrecognized group of women at increased risk for advanced fibrosis and associated complications. Longitudinal analyses of fibrosis rates across reproductive age should be conducted in non-HCV-related liver diseases, given potential implications in a broader spectrum of women Keyword: anti-müllerian hormone. Keyword: fibrosis markers. Keyword: hepatic scarring. Keyword: hormones. Keyword: menopause.
Infectious Diseases (2), Immune System Diseases (2), Women's Health (1)
Fibrosis (15), Hepatitis C (2), Liver Diseases (1), more mentions