Purpose People with HIV infection have an elevated risk of anal cancer. However, recent calendar trends are incompletely described, and which population subgroups might benefit from cancer screening is unknown. Methods We used linked data from HIV and cancer registries in nine US areas (1996 to 2012). We calculated standardized incidence ratios to compare anal cancer incidence in people with HIV infection with the general population, used Poisson regression to evaluate anal cancer incidence among subgroups of people with HIV and to assess temporal trends, and estimated the cumulative incidence of anal cancer to measure absolute risk. Results Among 447,953 people with HIV infection, anal cancer incidence was much higher than in the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 19.1; 95% CI, 18.1 to 20.0). Anal cancer incidence was highest among men who have sex with men (MSM), increased with age, and was higher in people with AIDS than in those without AIDS (ie, HIV only; adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 3.27 to 4.46). Incidence among people with HIV increased steeply during 1996 to 2000 (annual percentage change, 32.8%; 95% CI, -1.0% to 78.2%), reached a plateau during 2001 to 2008, and declined during 2008 to 2012 (annual percentage change, -7.2%; 95% CI, -14.4% to 0.6%). Cumulative incidence after a 5-year period was high for MSM with HIV only age 45 to 59 or ≥ 60 years (0.32% to 0.33%) and MSM with AIDS age 30 to 44, 45 to 59, or ≥ 60 years (0.29% to 0.65%). Conclusion Anal cancer incidence is markedly elevated among people with HIV infection, especially in MSM, older individuals, and people with AIDS. Recent declines may reflect delayed benefits of HIV treatment. Groups with high cumulative incidence of anal cancer may benefit from screening.
Immune System Diseases (15), Oncology (11) Anus Neoplasms (9), HIV Infections (5), Neoplasms (2), more mentions
Individuals with HIV infection are at elevated risk of developing end-stage renal disease. However, their outcomes after starting chronic dialysis in the contemporary era of widespread antiretroviral therapy are not well described. Using detailed data from a national dialysis provider, we determined HIV status by administrative codes and antiretroviral medication prescriptions, with hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection status provided by routinely measured serology. The survival on dialysis among 5348 individuals in the HIV(+) group and 1863 HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals to a HIV(-)/HCV(-) reference cohort was compared. Race significantly modified the effect of HIV and HIV/HCV infection on mortality. In a multivariable model, HIV infection was not associated with an increased risk of death among Caucasians (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.91-1.16) but HIV/HCV co-infection (1.48, 1.18-1.87) was. In the same model for non-Caucasians, both HIV infection (1.44, 1.37-1.52) and HIV/HCV co-infection (1.71, 1.60-1.84) were significantly associated with higher mortality. A secondary analysis using propensity scores yielded similar results. Median follow-up for the reference group was 645 days (interquartile range 230-1323), 772 days (276-1623) for the HIV(+) group and 777 days (334-1665) for the co-infected group. Thus, in the contemporary era of widespread antiretroviral use, HIV infection remains associated with a significant reduction in dialysis survival for non-Caucasians while HIV/HCV co-infection is associated with impaired survival regardless of race or ethnicity. Hence, interventions to improve the care for these vulnerable populations are needed.
Infectious Diseases (2), Kidney Disease (1) Coinfections (5), HIV Infections (4), Hepatitis C (2), more mentions
Background: Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons with HIV (PWH) on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear.
Methods: We investigated factors associated with brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy) in 134 PWH on suppressive cART and 79 comparable HIV-negative controls, aged ≥45 years from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort, using multimodal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers.
Results: Compared to controls, PWH had lower grey matter volumes (-13.7 mL [95%-confidence interval -25.1, -2.2 mL]) and fractional anisotropy (-0.0073 [-0.012, -0.0024]), with the largest differences observed in those with prior clinical AIDS. Hypertension and CSF soluble CD14 concentration were associated with lower fractional anisotropy. These associations were independent of HIV serostatus (Pinteraction=0.32 and Pinteraction=0.59, respectively) and did not explain the greater abnormalities in brain structure in relation to HIV.
Conclusions: The presence of lower grey matter volumes and more white matter microstructural abnormalities in well-treated PWH partly reflect a combination of historical effects of AIDS, as well as the more general influence of systemic factors such as hypertension and ongoing neuroinflammation. Additional mechanisms explaining the accentuation of brain structure abnormalities in treated HIV infection remain to be identified.
Immune System Diseases (10), Cardiovascular Diseases (2) HIV Infections (2), Hypertension (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: In the UK, HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has remained high for several years, despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and high rates of virological suppression. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be highly effective in preventing further infections in MSM, but its cost-effectiveness is uncertain.
METHODS: In this modelling study and economic evaluation, we calibrated a dynamic, individual-based stochastic model, the HIV Synthesis Model, to multiple data sources (surveillance data provided by Public Health England and data from a large, nationally representative survey, Natsal-3) on HIV among MSM in the UK. We did a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (sampling 22 key parameters) along with a range of univariate sensitivity analyses to evaluate the introduction of a PrEP programme with sexual event-based use of emtricitabine and tenofovir for MSM who had condomless anal sexual intercourse in the previous 3 months, a negative HIV test at baseline, and a negative HIV test in the preceding year. The main model outcomes were the number of HIV infections, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs.
FINDINGS: Introduction of such a PrEP programme, with around 4000 MSM initiated on PrEP by the end of the first year and almost 40 000 by the end of the 15th year, would result in a total cost saving (£1·0 billion discounted), avert 25% of HIV infections (42% of which would be directly because of PrEP), and lead to a gain of 40 000 discounted QALYs over an 80-year time horizon. This result was particularly sensitive to the time horizon chosen, the cost of antiretroviral drugs (for treatment and PrEP), and the underlying trend in condomless sex.
INTERPRETATION: This analysis suggests that the introduction of a PrEP programme for MSM in the UK is cost-effective and possibly cost-saving in the long term. A reduction in the cost of antiretroviral drugs (including the drugs used for PrEP) would substantially shorten the time for cost savings to be realised.
FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.
In 2006, WHO set forth its vision for a public health approach to delivering antiretroviral therapy. This approach has been broadly adopted in resource-poor settings and has provided the foundation for scaling up treatment to over 19·5 million people. There is a global commitment to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030 and, to support this goal, there are opportunities to adapt the public health approach to meet the ensuing challenges. These challenges include the need to improve identification of people with HIV infection through expanded approaches to testing; further simplify and improve treatment and laboratory monitoring; adapt the public health approach to concentrated epidemics; and link HIV testing, treatment, and care to HIV prevention. Implementation of these key public health principles will bring countries closer to the goals of controlling the HIV epidemic and providing universal health coverage.
Importance: Testing for and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is among the main strategies to achieve TB elimination in the United States. The best approach to testing among non-US born residents, particularly those with comorbid conditions, is uncertain.
Objective: To estimate health outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness of LTBI testing and treatment among non-US born residents with and without medical comorbidities.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Decision analytic tree and Markov cohort simulation model among non-US born residents with no comorbidities, with diabetes, with HIV infection, or with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using a health care sector perspective with 3% annual discounting. Strategies compared included no testing, tuberculin skin test (TST), interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), confirm positive (initial TST, IGRA only for TST-positive results; both tests positive indicates LTBI), and confirm negative (initial IGRA, then TST for IGRA-negative; any test positive indicates LTBI). All strategies were coupled to treatment with 3 months of self-administered rifapentine and isoniazid.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Number needed to test and treat to prevent 1 case of TB reactivation, discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), discounted lifetime medical costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs).
Results: Improving health outcomes increased costs, with choice of test dependent on willingness to pay. Strategies ranked by ascending costs and benefits: no testing, confirm positive, TST, IGRA, and confirm negative. The ICERs varied by non-US born patient risk group: patients with no comorbidities, IGRA was likely cost-effective at $83 000/QALY; patients with diabetes, both confirm positive ($53 000/QALY) and IGRA ($120 000/QALY) were likely cost-effective; patients with HIV, confirm negative was clearly preferred ($63 000/QALY); and patients with ESRD, no testing was cost-effective. Increased LTBI prevalence and reduced return for TST reading improved IGRA's relative performance. In 10 000 probabilistic simulations among non-US born patients with no comorbidities, with diabetes, and with HIV, some form of testing was virtually always cost-effective. These simulations highlight the uncertainty of test choice for non-US born patients with no comorbidities and non-US born patients with diabetes, but strategies including IGRA were preferred in over 60% of simulations for all non-US born populations except those with ESRD.
Conclusions and Relevance: Testing for and treating LTBI among non-US born residents with and without selected comorbidities is likely cost-effective except among those with ESRD in whom competing risks of death limit benefits. Strategies including IGRA fell below a $100 000/QALY willingness-to-pay threshold for non-US born patients with no comorbidities, patients with diabetes, and patients with HIV.
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people with HIV infection. Alcohol, marijuana, and HIV can have negative effects on cognition. We examined associations between current and lifetime marijuana and alcohol use, and cognitive dysfunction in people with HIV infection.
METHODS: We studied a cohort of 215 HIV-infected adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) substance dependence or ever injection drug use. In adjusted cross-sectional regression analyses we tested the associations between current marijuana use, current heavy alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime alcohol use, duration of heavy alcohol use (the independent variables), and three measures of cognitive dysfunction (dependent variables): both the i) memory and ii) attention domains from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and iii) the 4-item cognitive function scale (CF4) from the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV). Analyses were adjusted for demographics, primary language, depressive symptoms, anxiety, comorbidities, antiretroviral therapy, hepatitis C virus (ever), duration of HIV infection (years), HIV-viral load (log copies/mL), CD4 cell count, lifetime and recent cocaine use, and recent illicit and prescribed opioid use.
RESULTS: Current marijuana use was significantly and negatively associated with the MOS-HIV CF4 score (adjusted mean difference = -0.40, p = 0.01). Current marijuana use was not significantly associated with either MoCA score. Lifetime marijuana use and current heavy and lifetime alcohol use and duration of heavy alcohol use were not associated with any measure of cognitive dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: Current marijuana use was associated with one measure of cognitive dysfunction, but there was not a consistent pattern of association with lifetime marijuana use or alcohol use and measures of cognitive dysfunction. Understanding the mechanism by which marijuana, with and without alcohol, are associated with worse cognition warrants larger, longer studies with more precise and diverse measurements of cognitive function.
Neuroscience (8), Infectious Diseases (1), Immune System Diseases (1) HIV Infections (4), Mental Disorders (1), Infections (1), more mentions
Given the many options available, selecting an HIV test for a particular clinical or research setting can be daunting. Making an informed decision requires an assessment of the likelihood of acute infection in the test population and an understanding of key aspects of the tests themselves. The ability of individual tests to reliably detect HIV infection depends on the target(s) being detected, when they can be expected to be present after infection, and the concentration of stable target in test specimens, all of which are explained by the virologic and serologic events after infection. The purpose of this article is to review the timeline of HIV infection, nomenclature, and characteristics of different tests; compare point-of-care and laboratory-based tests; discuss the impact of different specimens on test performance; and provide practical advice to help clinicians and researchers new to the field select a test that best suits their needs.
OBJECTIVE: The global fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa has long been a focus of US foreign policy, but this could change if the federal budget for 2018 proposed by the US Office of Management and Budget is adopted. We aim to inform public and Congressional debate around this issue by evaluating the historical and potential future impact of US investment in the African HIV response.
DESIGN/METHODS: We use a previously published mathematical model of HIV transmission to characterize the possible impact of a series of financial scenarios for the historical and future AIDS response across Sub-Saharan Africa.
RESULTS: We find that US funding has saved nearly five million adults in Sub-Saharan Africa from AIDS-related deaths. In the coming 15 years, if current numbers on antiretroviral treatment are maintained without further expansion of programs (the proposed US strategy), nearly 26 million new HIV infections and 4.4 million AIDS deaths may occur. A 10% increase in US funding, together with ambitious domestic spending and focused attention on optimizing resources, can avert up to 22 million HIV infections and save 2.3 million lives in Sub-Saharan Africa compared with the proposed strategy.
CONCLUSION: Our synthesis of available evidence shows that the United States has played, and could continue to play, a vital role in the global HIV response. Reduced investment could allow more than two million avoidable AIDS deaths by 2032, whereas continued leadership by the United States and other countries could bring UNAIDS targets for ending the epidemic into reach.
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated immunodeficiency is related to loss of CD4(+) T cells. This mechanism does not explain certain manifestations of HIV disease, such as immunodeficiency events in patients with greater than 500 CD4(+) T cells/μL. CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) T cells are regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes that are highly concentrated within the tumor microenvironment and never analyzed in the circulation of HIV-infected patients.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the frequency of CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) Treg cells in the circulation of HIV-infected patients.
METHODS: The frequency of circulating CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) Treg cells was analyzed and correlated with viral load and CD4(+) T-cell counts/percentages in 93 HIV-1-infected patients subdivided as follows: naive (n = 63), elite controllers (n = 19), long-term nonprogressors (n = 7), and HIV-infected patients affected by tumor (n = 4). The same analyses were performed in HIV-negative patients with cancer (n = 53), hepatitis C virus-infected patients (n = 17), and healthy donors (n = 173).
RESULTS: HIV-infected patients had increased circulating levels of functional CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) Treg cells. These cells showed antigen specificity against HIV proteins. Their frequency after antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlated with HIV viremia, CD4(+) T-cell counts, and immune activation markers, suggesting their pathogenic involvement in AIDS- or non-AIDS-related complications. Their increase after initiation of ART heralded a lack of virologic or clinical response, and hence their monitoring is clinically relevant.
CONCLUSION: HIV infection induces remarkable expansion of CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) Treg cells, the frequency of which correlates with both clinical disease and signs of chronic immune cell activation. Monitoring their frequency in the circulation is a new marker of response to ART when effects on viremia and clinical response are not met.
Immune System Diseases (15), Infectious Diseases (1), Oncology (1) Neoplasms (3), HIV Infections (2), Viremia (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) infected individuals has been historically marked by low sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in comparison to those without HIV infection, resulting in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling those coinfected as a "special population with an unmet medical need."
OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed the treatment of chronic HCV infection in those infected with HIV. We propose that with the advent of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, patients co-infected with HCV and HIV have similar SVR rates as HCV mono-infected persons and that DAAs address an unmet medical need in this population.
METHODS: A review was performed using Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms within the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to search for studies dated between January 2004 and July 2017. Keywords used in the study included "hepatitis C," "HIV," "coinfection," and "direct-acting antiviral."
RESULTS: SVR rates for those with HCV and HIV coinfection treated with interferon-based therapies were substantially lower that SVR rates of HCV mono-infected individuals. The advent of DAA agents has resulted in similar SVR rates between mono-infected and co-infected individuals, with SVR greater than 93%. These medications have been demonstrated to have improved safety, efficacy, and tolerability in comparison to interferon-based regimens.
CONCLUSION: The designation of a "special population" for those with co-infection requires reconsideration. DAA therapies have resulted in similarly high rates of SVR for HCV infection in those with and without HIV infection. Despite these improvements, however, clinicians must be cognizant of negative predictors of SVR and barriers to treatment that may be more common in the coinfected population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Immune System Diseases (5), Infectious Diseases (4) Coinfections (4), Hepatitis C (3), HIV Infections (2), more mentions
Type I IFN production is essential for innate control of acute viral infection; however, prolonged high-level IFN production is associated with chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals. Although plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are a primary source of IFN, the mechanisms that regulate IFN levels following the acute phase are unknown. We hypothesized that HIV-specific Ab responses regulate late IFN production. We evaluated the mechanism through which HIV-activated pDCs produce IFN as well as how both monoclonal HIV-specific Abs and Abs produced in natural HIV infection modulated normal pDC sensing of HIV. We found that HIV-induced IFN production required TLR7 signaling, receptor-mediated entry, fusion, and viral uncoating, but not endocytosis or HIV life cycle stages after uncoating. Abs directed against the HIV envelope that do not interfere with CD4 binding markedly enhanced the IFN response, irrespective of their ability to neutralize CD4+ T cell infection. Ab-mediated enhancement of IFN production required Fc γ receptor engagement, bypassed fusion, and initiated signaling through both TLR7 and TLR9, which was not utilized in the absence of Ab. Polyclonal Abs isolated from HIV-infected subjects also enhanced pDC production of IFN in response to HIV. Our data provide an explanation for high levels of IFN production and immune activation in chronic HIV infection.