Data on the relative contribution of influenzavirus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling ... incidence in the consecutive seasons was 7.2% and 11.6%, and influenzavirus caused 18.9% and 34.2% of ILI episodes... pathogen were detected in 80% of the ILI events with influenzavirus, coronaviruses, rhinoviruses, human metapneumovirus, respiratorysyncytialvirus, parainfluenza viruses, and Haemophilusinfluenzae being the most common ...
Human Influenza (11), Infections (3), Respiratory Tract Infections (2), more mentions
... recipients with RSV.Subjects were grouped: upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), URTI progressing to LRTI, and LRTI at presentation ... from first RSV diagnosis was lowest in patients presenting with URTI (N = 197; 16... of 16 fewer oxygen-free days than those presenting with URTI (p<0.0001.
Hundreds of virus species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses (IFV), respiratorysyncytialvirus (RSV) and the rhinoviruses (RV) being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission or even just the ...
Vaccines (1) Respiratory Tract Infections (2), Human Influenza (1), more mentions
Abstract: Respiratorysyncytialvirus (RSV) is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of adult respiratory illness. We evaluated routine viral testing and discharge diagnoses for identifying RSV and influenza burden. Polymerase chain reaction results performed in adults during emergency room visits or hospitalizations were reviewed. Peak RSV activity preceded influenza activity by 8 weeks.
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Importance: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is common and often treated inappropriately in primary care with antibiotics. Corticosteroids are increasingly used but without sufficient evidence.
Objective: To assess the effects of oral corticosteroids for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (July 2013 to final follow-up October 2014) conducted in 54 family practices in England among 401 adults with acute cough and at least 1 lower respiratory tract symptom not requiring immediate antibiotic treatment and with no history of chronic pulmonary disease or use of asthma medication in the past 5 years.
Interventions: Two 20-mg prednisolone tablets (n = 199) or matched placebo (n = 202) once daily for 5 days.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were duration of moderately bad or worse cough (0 to 28 days; minimal clinically important difference, 3.79 days) and mean severity of symptoms on days 2 to 4 (scored from 0 [not affected] to 6 [as bad as it could be]; minimal clinically important difference, 1.66 units). Secondary outcomes were duration and severity of acute lower respiratory tract infection symptoms, duration of abnormal peak flow, antibiotic use, and adverse events.
Results: Among 401 randomized patients, 2 withdrew immediately after randomization, and 1 duplicate patient was identified. Among the 398 patients with baseline data (mean age, 47 [SD, 16.0] years; 63% women; 17% smokers; 77% phlegm; 70% shortness of breath; 47% wheezing; 46% chest pain; 42% abnormal peak flow), 334 (84%) provided cough duration and 369 (93%) symptom severity data. Median cough duration was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 days) in the prednisolone group and 5 days (IQR, 3-10 days) in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89-1.39; P = .36 at an α = .05). Mean symptom severity was 1.99 points in the prednisolone group and 2.16 points in the placebo group (adjusted difference, -0.20; 95% CI, -0.40 to 0.00; P = .05 at an α = .001). No significant treatment effects were observed for duration or severity of other acute lower respiratory tract infection symptoms, duration of abnormal peak flow, antibiotic use, or nonserious adverse events. There were no serious adverse events.
Conclusions and Relevance: Oral corticosteroids should not be used for acute lower respiratory tract infection symptoms in adults without asthma because they do not reduce symptom duration or severity.
Trial Registration: ISRCTN.com Identifier: ISRCTN57309858.
Nontypeable Haemophilusinfluenzae (NTHi) persists in the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. NTHi expresses four IgA protease variants (A1, A2, B1, B2) with distinct cleavage specificities for human IgA1. Little is known about the different roles of IgA protease variants in NTHi infection.Twenty-six NTHi isolates from a 20-year longitudinal study of COPD were analyzed for ...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (4), Infections (2), more mentions
A viral whole genome sequencing strategy, based on PCR amplification followed by Next-generation Sequencing, was used to investigate a nosocomial RSV-B outbreak in a hematology-oncology and stem cell transplant unit. RSV-B genomes from 16 patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) suspected to be involved in the outbreak were compared to RSV-B genomes acquired from outpatients during the same time period but epidemiologically unrelated to the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome identified a cluster of 11 patients and HCWs with an identical RSV-B strain which were clearly distinct from strains recovered from individuals unrelated to the outbreak. Sequences variation of the G gene alone was insufficient to distinguish the outbreak strains from the outbreak unrelated strains, thereby demonstrating that WGS is valuable for local outbreak investigation.
Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in severe acute respiratory infection patients (9.6% and 2.6% vs 4.5 and 0.2%; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001... Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus are more frequently found in severe acute respiratory infection patients. Detection of respiratory viruses is not associated with worse clinically relevant outcomes in the studied cohort of patients.
... SPCA1-deficient cells preventing viral spread, which is evident even in cells with partial loss of SPCA1. Thus, SPCA1 is an attractive antiviral host target for a broad spectrum of established and emerging viral infections Keyword: ATP2C1. Keyword: Hailey-Hailey disease. Keyword: SPCA1. Keyword: furin. Keyword: glycoprotein processing. Keyword: haploid cell screen. Keyword: respiratorysyncytialvirus. Keyword: trans-Golgi network.
Infectious Diseases (2), Immune System Diseases (1), Vaccines (1) Infections (2), Measles (1), Dengue (1), more mentions
CitationSubset: AIM. CitationSubset: IM. DescriptorName: Africa, Western. DescriptorName: Basic Reproduction Number. DescriptorName: Coronavirus Infections. DescriptorName: Data Collection. DescriptorName: Epidemiological Monitoring. DescriptorName: Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola. DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Internet. DescriptorName: Republic of Korea. DescriptorName: Spatio-Temporal Analysis. Abstract: The paucity of traditional epidemiological data during epidemic emergencies calls for alternative data streams to characterize the key features of an outbreak, including ...
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (6), Coronavirus Infections (1), more mentions
... syndrome cases imported into the United States, comprising all passengers and crew on 4 international and domestic flights and 1 bus. Of 655 contacts, 78% were interviewed; 33% had serologic testing. No secondary cases were identified Keyword: Aircraft. Keyword: MERS-CoV. Keyword: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus... Keyword: coronavirus. Keyword: disease notification. Keyword: disease outbreaks. Keyword: respiratory infections. Keyword: travel.
AbstractText: The pathogenesis, viral localization and histopathological features of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in human are not sufficiently described... Keyword: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Keyword: electron microscopy. Keyword: extra pulmonary. Keyword: histopathology. Keyword: pulmonary. Keyword: renal.
Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) resembles a severe form of community-acquired pneumonia initially reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The MERS-CoV epidemic poses a big challenge because of its high mortality. In January 2015, a patient who was potentially incubating MERS-CoV arrived from the emergency department of another hospital and was admitted with acute coronary ...
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a newly detected pathogen which can cause lower ... In the 59 SOT patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URI), 29 (49%) progressed to lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) after ... pneumonias were detected in nearly half of SOT patients showing URI symptoms with positive HMPV, and low lymphocyte count and high CRP at URI diagnosis were significant factors associated with HMPV pneumonia ...
Pneumonia (5), Infections (3), Respiratory Tract Diseases (2), more mentions
... the economic impact of achieving forecasted coverages for vaccination against Haemophilusinfluenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcuspneumoniae and yellow fever ... le taux de couverture prévu est atteint, des vaccinations contre Haemophilusinfluenzae type B, l'hépatite B, le papillomavirus humain, l'encéphalite japonaise, la rougeole, Neisseria meningitidis sérogroupe A, le rotavirus, la rubéole, Streptococcuspneumoniae et la fièvre jaune ...
Vaccines (3), Infectious Diseases (2) Hepatitis B (2), Japanese Encephalitis (1), Measles (1), more mentions
Atypical pathogens including Mycoplasmapneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila are increasingly recognized as important causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Mycoplasmapneumoniae accounts for 20-40% of all CAP and L. pneumophila is responsible for 3-15% of cases. The paucity of data from India in this regard prompted us to conduct this prospective multi centric analysis to detect the prevalence ...
To investigate the phenotypic effect of expression of selected acquired macrolide resistance genes (AMRGs) in non-typeable Haemophilusinfluenzae (NTHi).The AMRGs erm (A), erm (B) and erm (C) were cloned into Escherichia coli JM109 using the shuttle vector pLS88; constructed plasmids extracted from suitable clones were used to transform ...