DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: Rickettsia. DescriptorName: Tick-BorneDiseases. DescriptorName: Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne. Abstract: Rickettsia australis, the etiologic agent of Queensland tick typhus (QTT), is increasingly being recognized as a cause of community-acquired acute febrile illness in eastern Australia. Changing human population demographics, climate change, and increased understanding of expanding vector distribution indicate QTT is an emerging public health ...
Typhus (3), Infections (2), Tick-Borne Diseases (1), more mentions
DescriptorName: Polymerase Chain Reaction. DescriptorName: Republic of Korea. DescriptorName: Tick Bites. DescriptorName: Tick-BorneDiseases. DescriptorName: Treatment Outcome. Abstract: Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported.
Abstract: It has been over twenty years since the first vaccines for the control of tick infestations became commercially available. These vaccines proved their efficacy and the potential of this approach for the control of tick-bornediseases (TBDs), which represent a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide... Keyword: Tick-bornediseases. Keyword: Vaccine.
Vaccines (6) Tick-Borne Diseases (3), Infections (2), more mentions
... will respond to defaunation and climate change in proportion to total tick abundance. These findings demonstrate interacting effects of defaunation and aridity that increase disease risk, and they highlight the need to incorporate ecological context when predicting effects of wildlife loss on zoonotic disease dynamics Keyword: Coxiella burnetii. Keyword: climate. Keyword: defaunation. Keyword: exclosure. Keyword: tick-bornedisease. Keyword: ticks.
Every year Christian pilgrims from around the world visit the holy sites located around the Sea of Galilee. Some become ill during their stay with infectious diseases that were acquired in their country of origin, and are hospitalized at Poriya Medical Center. They pose a diagnostic challenge due to language barriers, the rarity of these infections in Israel, and the fact that diagnostic tests are not readily available. All patient records from 2015 of Holy Land tourists hospitalized at Poriya Medical Center were screened for the diagnosis of imported zoonotic diseases that are not commonly diagnosed in Israel. Three patients who were on a Holy Land tour were hospitalized during 2015 with laboratory-confirmed diagnostically challenging zoonotic infectious diseases: a 91-year-old priest from Ethiopia diagnosed with relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis, an 85-year-old retired mountaineer from New Hampshire diagnosed with human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and a 57-year-old farmer from central Brazil diagnosed with leptospirosis. These case reports emphasize the importance of considering imported zoonotic infectious diseases and obtaining appropriate diagnostic tests when treating Holy Land travelers to Israel.
EVIDENCE-BASED ANSWER: Topical permethrin is the most effective treatment for classic scabies (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, meta-analyses with consistent results). Topical lindane and crotamiton are inferior to permethrin but appear equivalent to each other and benzyl benzoate, sulfur, and natural synergized pyrethrins (SOR: B, limited randomized trials). Although not as effective as topical permethrin, oral ivermectin is an effective treatment compared with placebo (SOR: B, a single small randomized trial). Oral ivermectin may reduce the prevalence of scabies at one year in populations with endemic disease more than topical permethrin (SOR: B, a single randomized trial).
It has been claimed that dogs can be useful sentinels for public health monitoring of vector-borne infectious diseases, including Rickettsia spp. We used 153 canine blood samples opportunistically collected at Murdoch University Veterinary Hospital and 156 canine sera collected from Aboriginal communities in northwest Western Australia to test for evidence of Rickettsia spp. exposure, using microimmunofluorescence (MIF) in the latter case, and both MIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the former. Conventional and real-time PCR failed to amplify any Rickettsia spp. DNA. The seroprevalence for spotted fever group/transitional group Rickettsia spp. in Western Australian dogs was 17.3% (54/312), and for typhus group (TG) Rickettsia spp., 18.4% (57/310), with a cut-off titer of 1:128. Young dogs (≤ 2 years) from Aboriginal communities had significantly lower seropositivity to TG Rickettsia spp. compared with all other groups, and young Perth dogs had a significantly higher seropositivity to TG Rickettsia spp. than all Aboriginal community dogs.
A 31-year-old woman presented to her obstetrician's office at 16 weeks' gestation with a 2-day history of low-grade fever and an erythematous rash measuring 1 x 4 cm on her right groin. She had a medical history of a penicillin allergy (urticarial) and her outdoor activities included gardening and picnicking. What's your diagnosis?
Laboratory networks were established to provide accurate and timely laboratory confirmation of infections, an essential component of disease surveillance systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including polio, measles and rubella, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus, and invasive bacterial diseases. In addition to providing high-quality laboratory surveillance data to help guide disease control, elimination, and eradication programs, these global networks provide capacity-building and an infrastructure for public health laboratories. There are major challenges with sustaining and expanding the global laboratory surveillance capacity: limited resources and the need for expansion to meet programmatic goals. Here, we describe the WHO-coordinated laboratory networks supporting VPD surveillance and present a plan for the further development of these networks.
Vaccines (3) Measles (4), Rubella (4), Poliomyelitis (4), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation in rosacea vary widely.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to conduct an evidence-based meta-analysis of the prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation in patients with rosacea.
METHODS: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted. Odds ratios for prevalence of infestation and standardized mean difference (SMD) for Demodex density in patients with rosacea were pooled. Subgroup analysis for type of rosacea, control group, and sampling and examination methods were also performed.
RESULTS: Twenty-three case-control studies included 1513 patients with rosacea. Compared with the control patients, patients with rosacea were more likely to be infested by Demodex mites [odds ratio, 9.039; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.827-16.925] and had significantly higher Demodex density (SMD, 1.617; 95% CI, 1.090-2.145). Both erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (SMD, 2.686; 95% CI, 1.256-4.116) and papulopustular rosacea (SMD, 2.804; 95% CI, 1.464-4.145) had significantly higher Demodex density than did healthy control patients.
LIMITATIONS: Interstudy variability was high, and a causal relationship could not be established by case-control studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with rosacea had significantly higher prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation than did control patients. Demodex mites may play a role in both erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papulopustular rosacea.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 patients with JE were identified. Their median age was 51 years, and 10 (58.5%) were men. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (94.1%), altered consciousness (94.1%), and headache (80.2%). Hyporeflexia (47.1%), seizures (35.2%), abnormal brainstem reflex (23.5%), and flaccid weakness (17.6%) were also noted. Brain imaging revealed thalamic lesions in all patients, with the hippocampus, midbrain, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex affected to varying degrees. Sixteen patients (94.1%) required management in the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation due to neurological deterioration. At the time of discharge, 11 (64.7%) had poor recovery, defined as Glasgow coma scale scores of less than 8, and remained ventilator dependent. Comparison between the two outcome groups indicated that midbrain involvement (P = 0.028) and rapid deterioration (P = 0.005) were associated with severe neurological sequelae. Given that JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination for adults should be considered in response to the reemergence of JE.
Vaccines (1) Japanese Encephalitis (2), Encephalitis (2), Hyporeflexia (1), more mentions
Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.
We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.
We report the identification of a neurotropic astrovirus associated with encephalitis in a sheep. This virus is genetically almost identical to an astrovirus recently described in neurologically diseased cattle. The similarity indicates that astroviruses of the same genotype may cause encephalitis in different species.
In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.
OBJECTIVE: Despite its geographical spread, the epidemiology of Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF)in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood and its occurrence in Mozambique is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the occurrence of CCHF among febrile patients attending an outpatient appointment clinic at three separate primary health care centres in Mozambique.
METHODS: Serum samples were collected from a total of 300 febrile patients aged >5years old who were recruited between March 2015 and March 2016 at three health centres in Mozambique. Each patient was screened for IgG antibodies against CCHFV using ELISA.
RESULTS: Of the 300 patients who were enrolled, eight samples were positive for IgG anti-CCHFV antibodies, yielding a prevalence rate of 2.7%.
CONCLUSION: This study shows for the first time that humans are exposed to CCHFV in Mozambique. It highlights the need for further work to investigate the broader extent of circulating CCHFV in the country and its clinical implications.
A 36-year-old female patient with HIV infection and poor treatment adherence was seen due to a skin rash that was affecting mainly her trunk and extremities. Lesions consisted of non-pruriginous papules, hyperkeratotic plaques, and desquamation (Fig 1). Upon dermoscopic examination (10x, DermLite DL3N, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA), the lesions exhibited a hyperkeratotic appearance, and the centre was composed of several burrows on top of each other in a noodle-like pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.