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Parasitic Infections
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Your search returned 53 results
from the time period: last 90 days.
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The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.
Infectious Diseases (1)
Anaplasmosis (3), Tick-Borne Diseases (1), Communicable Diseases (1), more mentions
BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 
... drugs were highly efficacious against A lumbricoides Albendazole showed the highest efficacy against hookworm infections with a cure rate of 79.5% (95% confidence interval 71.5% to 85.6%) and ... While only albendazole showed good efficacy against hookworm infection, all drugs had low efficacy against T trichiura The decrease in efficacy of ...
Infections (2), Helminthiasis (1), more mentions
Malaria journal
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-feeding assays are important tools to guide the development and support the evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions. These functional bioassays measure the sporogonic development of gametocytes in blood-fed mosquitoes. Measuring the infectivity of low gametocyte densities has become increasingly important in malaria elimination scenarios. This will pose challenges to the sensitivity and throughput of existing mosquito-feeding assay protocols. Here, different gametocyte concentration methods of blood samples were explored to optimize conditions for detection of positive mosquito infections. METHODS: Mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum were diluted into whole blood samples of malaria-naïve volunteers. Standard centrifugation, Percoll gradient, magnetic cell sorting (MACS) enrichment were compared using starting blood volumes larger than the control (direct) feed. RESULTS: MACS gametocyte enrichment resulted in the highest infection intensity with statistically significant increases in mean oocyst density in 2 of 3 experiments (p = 0.0003; p ≤ 0.0001; p = 0.2348). The Percoll gradient and standard centrifugation procedures resulted in variable infectivity. A significant increase in the proportion of infected mosquitoes and oocyst density was found when larger volumes of gametocyte-infected blood were used with the MACS procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrates that concentration methods of P. falciparum gametocyte-infected whole blood samples can enhance transmission in mosquito-feeding assays. Gametocyte purification by MACS was the most efficient method, allowing the assessment of gametocyte infectivity in low-density gametocyte infections, as can be expected in natural or experimental conditions.
Infections (4), Malaria (3), more mentions
PloS one
... of AP-1 in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi-the Chagas disease parasite-has not been addressed... Epimastigote (insect form) parasites lacking TcAP1-γ (TcγKO) have reduced proliferation and differentiation into infective metacyclic trypomastigotes (compared with wild-type parasites ... TcγKO parasites have also displayed significantly reduced infectivity towards mammalian cells... cargo-the major cysteine protease cruzipain, which is important for parasite nutrition, differentiation and infection.
Chagas Disease (1), Infections (1), more mentions
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Abstract: The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor ... Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients ... and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.
Immune System Diseases (3)
Infections (2), more mentions
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
... Plasmodium falciparum resistance-mediating polymorphisms impact on development at different parasite stages, we compared the genotypes of parasites infecting humans and mosquitoes from households in Uganda ... of mutations at 12 loci did not differ significantly between parasites infecting humans and mosquitoes. However, compared with parasites infecting humans, those infecting mosquitoes were enriched for the pfmdr1 86Y mutant allele (P ...
Malaria (3), more mentions
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV is unknown. We characterized liver disease using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 in patients with HIV, HBV, and HIV/HBV coinfection in Tanzania. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we compared the prevalence of liver fibrosis in treatment-naive HIV monoinfected, HBV monoinfected, and HIV/HBV-coinfected adults enrolled at Management and Development for Health (MDH)-supported HIV treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Risk factors associated with significant fibrosis (APRI >0.5 and FIB-4 >1.45) were examined. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-seven HIV-infected, 165 HBV-infected, and 63 HIV/HBV-coinfected patients were analyzed [44% men, median age 37 (interquartile range 14), body mass index 23 (7)]. APRI and FIB-4 were strongly correlated (r = 0.78, P < 0.001, R = 0.61). Overall median APRI scores were low {HIV/HBV [0.36 (interquartile range 0.4)], HIV [0.23 (0.17)], HBV [0.29 (0.15)] (P < 0.01)}. In multivariate analyses, HIV/HBV coinfection was associated with APRI >0.5 [HIV/HBV vs. HIV: odds ratio (OR) 3.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.91 to 7.50)], [HIV/HBV vs. HBV: OR 2.61 (1.26 to 5.44)]. HIV RNA per 1 log10 copies/mL increase [OR 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.26)] and HBV DNA per 1 log10 copies/mL increase [OR 1.36 (1.15, 1.62)] were independently associated with APRI >0.5 in HIV-infected and HBV-infected patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HIV/HBV coinfection is an important risk factor for significant fibrosis. Higher levels of circulating HIV and HBV virus may play a direct role in liver fibrogenesis. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive monitoring of liver disease in HIV/HBV coinfection is warranted.
Infectious Diseases (2), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1)
Coinfections (5), Liver Diseases (3), Fibrosis (2), more mentions
Wilderness & environmental medicine
OBJECTIVE: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites. METHODS: We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014. We obtained the person's age, whether they were taking a PPI at the time of the O & P examination, and whether the pathology report indicated the presence of any parasites. χ(2) with Yates correction was used to determine if PPI use was associated with stool protozoa. RESULTS: Three intestinal protozoa were identified in 1199 patients taking a PPI (0.3%), and 551 intestinal parasites were identified in the 14,287 patients not taking a PPI (3.9%). There was a statistically significant lower likelihood of finding protozoa in the stool of a person taking a PPI compared with those not taking a PPI (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking a PPI were statistically less likely to have an intestinal protozoa reported on stool O & P examination compared with those not taking a PPI.
Infections (1), more mentions
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
We conducted this study to explore the extent of occult helminth infection identified by fecal parasitological examinations or organ-specific examinations such as colonoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography (US) during health checkups. We analyzed 197,422 fecal samples from 99,451 subjects who received health checkups at a single center over 10 years.
Clonorchiasis (6), Infections (4), Trichuriasis (2), more mentions
The Journal of infectious diseases
HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). There is extensive depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ T cells in blood in early HIV infection, but little is known about responses in the lungs at this stage. Given that mucosal organs are a principal target for HIV-mediated CD4 destruction, we investigated M.tuberculosis-specific responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), in persons with latent TB infection and untreated HIV-1 co-infection with preserved CD4 counts. M.tuberculosis-specific CD4+ cytokine responses (IFN-, TNF- and IL-2) were discordant in frequency and function between BAL and blood. Responses in BAL were 15-fold lower in HIV-infected compared to uninfected persons (p=0.048), whilst blood responses were 2-fold lower (p=0.006). However, an increase in T cells in the airways in HIV-infected persons resulted in the overall number of M.tuberculosis-specific CD4+ cells in BAL being similar. Our study highlights the important insights gained from studying TB immunity at the site of disease during HIV infection.
Cardiovascular Diseases (9), Immune System Diseases (1)
Tuberculosis (9), Infections (3), HIV Infections (2), more mentions
PloS one
The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The present study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of 115 human subjects, based on isolation of CICs. The SDS-PAGE patterns showed an up-regulated expression of 55 kDa and 23 kDa fractions in an antigens obtained from CICs of all clinical and parasitologically proven untreated visceral leishmaniasis patients before treatment (VL-BT), which ensured absolute sensitivity. However, light expressions of these bands were observed in some VL treated cases. To ascertain the prognostic value, 2D expression profiles of circulating antigens were carried out, which revealed 3 upregulated and 12 induced immunoreactive spots. Out of these, ten prominent spots were excised and subjected for enzymatic digestion to generate peptides. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis successfully explored 20 peptides derived from kinase, kinesin, acetyl Co-A carboxylase, dynein heavy chains (cytoplasmic and axonemal/flagellar), 60S ribosomal protein, nucleoporin protein, RNA polymeraseII, protease gp63, tubulin, DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, GTP-binding protein and tyrosyl-methionyl t-RNA synthetase-like protein and 19 hypothetical protein of unknown function. Presence of L. donovani proteins in circulating antigens were further validated using anti-Ld actin and anti-α tubulin antibody. Besides, MS derived peptides confirmed its reactivity with patients' sera. Therefore, these shortlisted potential antigens can be explored as antigen-based diagnostic as well as prognostic kit.
Leishmaniasis (3), more mentions
PloS one
BACKGROUND: International human migration has been rapidly growing. Migrants coming from low and middle income countries continue to be considerably vulnerable and at higher risk for infectious diseases, namely HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and tuberculosis (TB). In Europe, the number of patients with HIV-TB co-infection has been increasing and migration could be one of the potential driving forces. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to improve the understanding on the burden of HIV-TB co-infection among migrants in Europe and to assess whether these populations are particularly vulnerable to this co-infection compared to nationals. DESIGN: MEDLINE®, Web of Science® and Scopus® databases were searched from March to April 2016 using combinations of keywords. Titles and abstracts were screened and studies meeting the inclusion criteria proceeded for full-text revision. These articles were then selected for data extraction on the prevalence, incidence and mortality. RESULTS: The majority of HIV-TB prevalence data reported in the analysed studies, including extrapulmonary/disseminated TB forms, was higher among migrant vs. nationals, some of the studies even showing increasing trends over time. Additionally, while HIV-TB incidence rates have decreased among migrants and nationals, migrants are still at a higher risk for this co-infection. Migrants with HIV-TB co-infection were also more prone to unsuccessful treatment outcomes, death and drug resistant TB. However, contradicting results also showed lower mortality compared to nationals. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a disproportionate vulnerability of migrants to acquire the HIV-TB co-infection was observed across studies. Such vulnerability has been associated to low socioeconomic status, poor living conditions and limited access to healthcare. Adequate social support, early detection, appropriate treatment, and adequate access to healthcare are key improvements to tackle HIV-TB co-infection among these populations.
Cardiovascular Diseases (3), Infectious Diseases (1), Immune System Diseases (1)
Coinfections (9), Tuberculosis (3), Communicable Diseases (1), more mentions
PloS one
BACKGROUND: Human Pegivirus (HPgV) may have a beneficial effect on HIV disease progression in co-infected patients; however, the virologic characteristics of this infection are not well defined. In this study, we determined HPgV viremia prevalence in Mexico and provide new insights to understand HPgV infection and HPgV/HIV co-infection. METHODS: We analyzed and quantified 7,890 serum samples for HPgV viremia by One-Step RT-Real-Time PCR, 6,484 from healthy blood donors and 1,406 from HIV-infected patients. Data on HIV progression were obtained from patients' records. HPgV genotyping was performed in 445 samples by nested PCR of the 5'URT region. Finite Mixture Models were used to identify clustering patterns of HPgV viremia in blood donors and co-infected antiretroviral (ART)-naïve patients. RESULTS: HPgV was detected in 2.98% of blood donors and 33% of HIV patients, with a wide range of viral loads. The most prevalent genotypes were 3 (58.6%)and 2 (33.7%). HPgV viral loads from healthy blood donors and HPgV/HIV+ ART-naïve co-infected patients were clustered into two component distributions, low and high, with a cut-off point of 5.07log10 and 5.06log10, respectively. High HPgV viremia was associated with improved surrogate markers of HIV infection, independent of the estimated duration of HIV infection or HIV treatment. CONCLUSIONS: HPgV prevalence in Mexico was similar to that reported for other countries. The prevalent genotypes could be related to Mexico's geographic location and ethnicity, since genotype 2 is frequent in the United States and Europe and genotype 3 in Asia and Amerindian populations. HPgV viral load demonstrated two patterns of replication, low and high. The more pronounced beneficial response observed in co-infected patients with high HPgV viremia may explain discrepancies found between other studies. Mechanisms explaining high and low HPgV replication should be explored to determine whether the persistently elevated replication depends on host or viral factors.
Viremia (6), HIV Infections (3), Coinfections (2), more mentions
PloS one
BACKGROUND: Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: We evaluated oral HPV prevalence and determinants of infection in cancer-free HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited among attendees of an STI/HIV centre. Oral rinse and gargles were collected using a mouthwash and analyzed with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: Overall, 170 MSM participated: 98 HIV-uninfected and 72 HIV-infected (91.7% under cART). Oral HPV was detected in 17.3% and 27.8% of the subjects, respectively (p = 0.13). Non-carcinogenic HPVs were significantly more common among HIV-infected MSM (18.1% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.01). Prevalence of the HPV types included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was similar (6.1% vs. 8.3% for the HIV-negative and positive MSM, respectively, p = 0.76). HPV16 was the most frequent type in HIV-negative (5.1%), and HIV-positive individuals, in the latter group together with HPV18, 72 and 84 (4.2% each). Older age at first sex (AOR: 4.02, 95% CI: 1.17-13.86 for those older than 18 years of age at first intercourse, p = 0.027) and a higher lifetime number of receptive oral sex partners (AOR: 9.14, 95% CI: 2.49-33.62 for those with >50 compared to ≤50 partners, p<0.001) were determinants of oral HPV among HIV-infected MSM. CONCLUSION: Oral HPV infection among MSM attending an urban STI center is very frequent compared to the general population. Sexual behavior appears to be the major determinant of infection among the HIV-infected individuals.
Oncology (2), Vaccines (1)
Infections (6), Oropharyngeal Neoplasms (1), HIV Infections (1), more mentions
Medicine
The clinical importance of pulmonary cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is uncertain. We therefore determined the association of CMV infection with outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP by assessing CMV viral load and CMV-specific T-cell response.We prospectively enrolled all non-HIV-infected patients with confirmed PCP, over a 2-year period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction from bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to measure CMV viral load, and CMV enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood were used to measure CMV-specific T-cell responses. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.A total of 76 patients were finally analyzed. The mortality in patients with high BAL CMV viral load (>2.52 log copies/mL, 6/32 [18%]) showed a nonsignificant trend to be higher than in those with low CMV viral load (2/44 [5%], P = .13). However, the mortality in patients with low CMV-specific T-cell responses (<5 spots/2.0 × 10 PBMC, 6/29 [21%]) was significantly higher than in patients with high CMV-specific T-cell response (2/47 [4%], P = .048). Moreover, the 2 strata with high CMV viral load and low CMV-specific T-cell responses (4/14 [29%]) and low CMV viral load and low CMV-specific T-cell responses (2/15 [13%]) had poorer outcomes than the 2 strata with high CMV viral load and high CMV-specific T-cell responses (2/18 [11%]) and low CMV viral load and high CMV-specific T-cell responses (0/29 [0%]).These data suggest that the CMV replication and impaired CMV-specific T-cell responses adversely affect the outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP.
Pneumonia (3), Coinfections (2), Cytomegalovirus Infections (1), more mentions
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
No Abstract Available
Infectious Diseases (4)
Hepatitis C (2), Hepatitis B (2), more mentions
The American journal of medicine
No Abstract Available
Infections (2), Sepsis (2), more mentions
Emerging infectious diseases
Tularemia in humans in northwestern Spain is associated with increases in vole populations. Prevalence of infection with Francisella tularensis in common voles increased to 33% during a vole population fluctuation. This finding confirms that voles are spillover agents for zoonotic outbreaks. Ecologic interactions associated with tularemia prevention should be considered.
Tularemia (2), Infections (1), more mentions
Emerging infectious diseases
Using a large, passive, febrile surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we retrospectively tested human blood specimens for scrub typhus group orientiae by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Of 1,124 participants, 60 (5.3%) were seropositive, and 1 showed evidence of recent active infection. Our serologic data indicate that scrub typhus is present in the Peruvian Amazon.
Scrub Typhus (3), Infections (1), more mentions
Emerging infectious diseases
We report a human case of ocular Dirofilaria infection in a traveler returning to Austria from India. Analysis of mitochondrial sequences identified the worm as Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, a close relative of Dirofilaria repens, which was only recently described in Hong Kong and proposed as a new species.
Infections (1), more mentions
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