Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria. A confirmed case of histoplasmosis was defined as a person with a positive culture or urine antigen test for Histoplasma capsulatum. Demographic and clinical data were also collected and analyzed. Of 263 enrolled as suspected cases of histoplasmosis, 101 (38.4%) were confirmed cases. Median time to diagnosis was 15 days after presentation (interquartile range [IQR] = 5-23). Crude overall mortality was 43.6%; median survival time was 19 days (IQR = 4-69). Mycobacterial infection was diagnosed in 70 (26.6%) cases; 26 (25.7%) histoplasmosis cases were coinfected with mycobacteria. High mortality and short survival time after initial symptoms were observed in patients with histoplasmosis. Mycobacterial coinfection diagnoses were frequent, highlighting the importance of pursuing diagnoses for both diseases.
Immune System Diseases (8) Histoplasmosis (9), Coinfections (3), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (3), more mentions
Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic fungus endemic mainly in southeast and south Asia. It causes severe mycosis, usually in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other opportunistic pathogens is plausible because the majority of T. marneffei infections occur in patients with advanced HIV infection. Nonetheless, coinfection in the same site has rarely been reported, and poses a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the case of an HIV-infected Japanese patient who had lived in Thailand for 6 years. The patient developed T. marneffei and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection, and both pathogens were isolated from the same sites: a blood specimen and a lymph node aspirate. Clinicians should be aware of concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other pathogens in patients with advanced HIV disease who are living in or who have visited endemic areas.
Immune System Diseases (7), Cardiovascular Diseases (4) Coinfections (4), Infections (4), Tuberculosis (4), more mentions
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs. In total, 1,505 patients were included: NMC, N = 365; LPH, N = 442; BMH, N = 384; and PGH, N = 314. The median age was 32 years, and 73.3% of all patients were male. The median CD4 count was 200 cells/μL. Most patients at NMC and PGH were men who have sex with men. Injection drug users were most common at BMH (35.7%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) was most common at PGH (N = 75) but was rare at NMC (N = 4). Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prevalence was highest at NMC (N = 74) and lowest at BMH (N = 13). Multivariable logistic regression showed increased odds of TB at PGH (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 42.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.6-122.1), BMH (aOR = 12.6, CI = 3.9-40.3), and LPH (aOR = 6.6, CI = 2.1-21.1) but decreased odds of PCP at BMH (aOR = 0.1, CI = 0.04-0.2) and LPH (aOR = 0.2, CI = 0.1-0.4) compared with those at NMC. The cryptococcosis risk was increased at LPH (aOR = 6.2, CI = 0.9-41.0) compared with that at NMC. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis prevalences were similar in all countries. OI prevalence remained high among ART-naïve patients in our cohort. The risks of TB, PCP, and cryptococcosis, but not CMV retinitis, differed between countries. Improved early HIV detection is warranted.
Immune System Diseases (6), Cardiovascular Diseases (2) Cryptococcosis (3), Opportunistic Infections (2), Tuberculosis (2), more mentions
AbstractTalaromyces marneffei infection is increasingly observed in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in eastern China, a nonendemic area. This study aimed to draw the clinician's attention to this disease by presenting the clinical characteristics and prognosis of penicilliosis among HIV-infected patients from this region. We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with culture-proven T. marneffei infection admitted during January 1, 2014-December 31, 2015, at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. A total of 48 patients with confirmed HIV infection and penicilliosis were enrolled, which accounted for a mean of 3.2% (95% confidence interval: 2.4-4.2%) of yearly HIV infection admissions among patients from eastern China. Symptoms included fever, cough, and gastrointestinal complaints, whereas the most common sign was skin lesions. Anemia occurred in 87.5% (42/48) of the patients. The overall mortality rate was 16.7%. Low CD4 T-cell count and hemoglobin level were correlated with mortality. Based on these results, we concluded that penicilliosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients from eastern China who present with fever, cutaneous lesions, and anemia. The clinical characters and the prognosis of patients with penicilliosis are similar to those in endemic areas. More attention should be paid to penicilliosis patients with low CD4 T-cell count and/or low hemoglobin level.
Immune System Diseases (10), Blood Disorders and Hematology (2) HIV Infections (3), Anemia (2), Infections (2), more mentions
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-feeding assays are important tools to guide the development and support the evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions. These functional bioassays measure the sporogonic development of gametocytes in blood-fed mosquitoes. Measuring the infectivity of low gametocyte densities has become increasingly important in malaria elimination scenarios. This will pose challenges to the sensitivity and throughput of existing mosquito-feeding assay protocols. Here, different gametocyte concentration methods of blood samples were explored to optimize conditions for detection of positive mosquito infections.
METHODS: Mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum were diluted into whole blood samples of malaria-naïve volunteers. Standard centrifugation, Percoll gradient, magnetic cell sorting (MACS) enrichment were compared using starting blood volumes larger than the control (direct) feed.
RESULTS: MACS gametocyte enrichment resulted in the highest infection intensity with statistically significant increases in mean oocyst density in 2 of 3 experiments (p = 0.0003; p ≤ 0.0001; p = 0.2348). The Percoll gradient and standard centrifugation procedures resulted in variable infectivity. A significant increase in the proportion of infected mosquitoes and oocyst density was found when larger volumes of gametocyte-infected blood were used with the MACS procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrates that concentration methods of P. falciparum gametocyte-infected whole blood samples can enhance transmission in mosquito-feeding assays. Gametocyte purification by MACS was the most efficient method, allowing the assessment of gametocyte infectivity in low-density gametocyte infections, as can be expected in natural or experimental conditions.
... of AP-1 in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi-the Chagas diseaseparasite-has not been addressed... Epimastigote (insect form) parasites lacking TcAP1-γ (TcγKO) have reduced proliferation and differentiation into infective metacyclic trypomastigotes (compared with wild-type parasites ... TcγKO parasites have also displayed significantly reduced infectivity towards mammalian cells... cargo-the major cysteine protease cruzipain, which is important for parasite nutrition, differentiation and infection.
Abstract: The problem of intestinal parasiticinfection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor ... Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients ... and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.
We first identified protozoan and helminth parasitesinfecting this population... To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp ...
AbstractUniversal access to safe drinking water is a global priority. To estimate the annual disease burden of campylobacteriosis, nontyphoidal salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and norovirus attributable to waterborne transmission in Australia, we multiplied regional World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of the proportion of cases attributable to waterborne transmission by estimates of all-source disease burden for each study pathogen. Norovirus was attributed as causing the most waterborne disease cases (479,632; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 0-1,111,874) followed by giardiasis and campylobacteriosis. The estimated waterborne disability-adjusted life year (DALY) burden for campylobacteriosis (2,004; 95% UI: 0-5,831) was 7-fold greater than other study pathogens and exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality (1 × 10(-6) DALY per person per year) by 90-fold. However, these estimates include disease transmitted via either drinking or recreational water exposure. More precise country-specific and drinking water-specific attribution estimates would better define the health burden from drinking water and inform changes to treatment requirements.
Giardiasis (3), Cryptosporidiosis (2), Salmonella Infections (2), more mentions
OBJECTIVE: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites.
METHODS: We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014. We obtained the person's age, whether they were taking a PPI at the time of the O & P examination, and whether the pathology report indicated the presence of any parasites. χ(2) with Yates correction was used to determine if PPI use was associated with stool protozoa.
RESULTS: Three intestinal protozoa were identified in 1199 patients taking a PPI (0.3%), and 551 intestinal parasites were identified in the 14,287 patients not taking a PPI (3.9%). There was a statistically significant lower likelihood of finding protozoa in the stool of a person taking a PPI compared with those not taking a PPI (P < .0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking a PPI were statistically less likely to have an intestinal protozoa reported on stool O & P examination compared with those not taking a PPI.
We conducted this study to explore the extent of occult helminth infection identified by fecal parasitological examinations or organ-specific examinations such as colonoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography (US) during health checkups. We analyzed 197,422 fecal samples from 99,451 subjects who received health checkups at a single center over 10 years.
Clonorchiasis (6), Infections (4), Trichuriasis (2), more mentions
Entamoeba histolytica is considered endemic in Australia; however, cases are rare, occurring almost exclusively in high-risk individuals. We describe a series of locally acquired, complicated cases in low-risk individuals from Far North Queensland in whom the diagnosis was delayed. Amebiasis may pose a greater local threat than is currently recognized.
The clinical importance of pulmonary cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is uncertain. We therefore determined the association of CMV infection with outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP by assessing CMV viral load and CMV-specific T-cell response.We prospectively enrolled all non-HIV-infected patients with confirmed PCP, over a 2-year period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction from bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to measure CMV viral load, and CMV enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood were used to measure CMV-specific T-cell responses. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.A total of 76 patients were finally analyzed. The mortality in patients with high BAL CMV viral load (>2.52 log copies/mL, 6/32 [18%]) showed a nonsignificant trend to be higher than in those with low CMV viral load (2/44 [5%], P = .13). However, the mortality in patients with low CMV-specific T-cell responses (<5 spots/2.0 × 10 PBMC, 6/29 [21%]) was significantly higher than in patients with high CMV-specific T-cell response (2/47 [4%], P = .048). Moreover, the 2 strata with high CMV viral load and low CMV-specific T-cell responses (4/14 [29%]) and low CMV viral load and low CMV-specific T-cell responses (2/15 [13%]) had poorer outcomes than the 2 strata with high CMV viral load and high CMV-specific T-cell responses (2/18 [11%]) and low CMV viral load and high CMV-specific T-cell responses (0/29 [0%]).These data suggest that the CMV replication and impaired CMV-specific T-cell responses adversely affect the outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP.
Pneumonia (3), Coinfections (2), Cytomegalovirus Infections (1), more mentions
To estimate the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on the development of complications and progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease among HIV-infected elite controllers.Single-center retrospective cohort. Kaplan-Meier methods, prevalence ratios, and Cox proportional-hazards models were used.In all, 55 HIV-infected elite controllers were included in this study. Among them, 45% were HIV/HCV coinfected and 55% were HIV mono-infected. Median follow-up time for the cohort was 11 years. Twenty-five patients experienced a complication and 16 lost elite controller status during the study period. HCV coinfected patients were 4.78 times (95% confidence interval 1.50-15.28) more likely to develop complications compared with HIV mono-infected patients. There was no association between HCV coinfection status and loss of elite control (hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.27-2.06).Hepatitis C virus coinfection was significantly associated with the risk of complications even after controlling for sex, injecting drug use, and older age. HCV coinfected patients had higher levels of cellular activation while also having similar levels of lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14. HCV coinfection was not associated with loss of elite controller status. Taken together, this suggests that HCV coinfection does not directly affect HIV replication dynamics or natural history, but that it may act synergistically with HIV to produce a greater number of associated complications. Continued follow-up will be needed to determine whether HCV cure through the use of direct-acting antivirals among HIV/HCV coinfected elite controllers will make the risk for complications among these patients similar to their HIV mono-infected counterparts.
Infectious Diseases (3), Immune System Diseases (1) Coinfections (7), Hepatitis C (3), HIV Infections (1), more mentions
Tularemia in humans in northwestern Spain is associated with increases in vole populations. Prevalence of infection with Francisella tularensis in common voles increased to 33% during a vole population fluctuation. This finding confirms that voles are spillover agents for zoonotic outbreaks. Ecologic interactions associated with tularemia prevention should be considered.
Using a large, passive, febrile surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we retrospectively tested human blood specimens for scrub typhus group orientiae by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Of 1,124 participants, 60 (5.3%) were seropositive, and 1 showed evidence of recent active infection. Our serologic data indicate that scrub typhus is present in the Peruvian Amazon.
We report a human case of ocular Dirofilaria infection in a traveler returning to Austria from India. Analysis of mitochondrial sequences identified the worm as Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, a close relative of Dirofilaria repens, which was only recently described in Hong Kong and proposed as a new species.
We identified the mucus-activatable Shiga toxin genotype stx2d in the most common hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated Escherichia coli serotype, O157:H7. stx2d was detected in a strain isolated from a 2-year-old boy with bloody diarrhea in Spain, and whole-genome sequencing was used to confirm and fully characterize the strain.
An increasing number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are achieving virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART) limiting the use of primary and secondary antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, in low-income and resource-limited settings, half of those infected with HIV are unaware of their diagnosis, and fewer than 50% of patients on ART achieve virologic suppression. Management of comorbidities and opportunistic infections among patients on ART may lead to inevitable drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and even toxicities. Elderly patients, individuals with multiple comorbidities, those receiving complex ART, and patients living in low-income settings experience higher rates of DDIs. Management of these cytochrome P450-mediated, nonmediated, and drug transport system DDIs is critical in HIV-infected patients, particularly those in resource-limited settings with few options for ART. This article critically analyzes and provides recommendations to manage significant DDIs and drug toxicities in HIV-infected patients receiving ART.
Immune System Diseases (7) Opportunistic Infections (3), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (1), more mentions