Out of 12 nontuberculousmycobacteria (NTM) species, 5 were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by GeneXpert at a bacterial load of 10(6... Probe E. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that the misdiagnosis of MTB by GeneXpert assay is observed in five NTM species at a high bacterial load.
Limited data are available describing extrapulmonary nontuberculousmycobacteria (NTM) infections in the general population... We defined a case of extrapulmonary NTM infection as >1 isolate from skin/soft tissue, disseminated sites ... The annual incidence of extrapulmonary NTM infection (other than Mycobacterium gordonae) was stable, averaging 1.5 cases ... Compared with pulmonary NTM infection, more extrapulmonary infections are caused by rapid-growing NTM species ...
... SLC29A1 were associated with PNTM in our gene-level association analysis AbstractText: TTK gene encodes a protein kinase that is essential for mitotic checkpoints and the DNA damage response. TTK and other genetic loci identified in our study may contribute to the increased susceptibility to NTM infection and its progression to pulmonary disease Keyword: DNA sequence analysis... Keyword: nontuberculousmycobacteria.
Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow-growing, non-tuberculousmycobacteria that causes cutaneous infection. We describe a case of cutaneous infection in a 68-year-old Japanese man with polymyositis. This was caused by M. haemophilum harboring one base insertion in gene sequence. At first, the causal microorganism was misidentified as M. intracellulare by COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MAI test.
Abstract: Typical cutaneous non-tuberculousmycobacteria (NTM) infections show a histopathology pattern of granulomas with admixed Langhans giant cells, and abscesses may ... Anti-NTM treatment was initiated... RDD-like histopathological features, which may be a pitfall in the diagnosis of disseminated cutaneous NTM infections Keyword: Mycobacterium kansasii... Keyword: non-tuberculousmycobacteria.
Infections (5), Sinus Histiocytosis (3), Granuloma (1), more mentions
A 10-year review of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and MAC-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-positive patients (2004-2014) at a state-wide tertiary referral HIV service demonstrates that despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, MAC infection remains a therapeutic challenge, particularly intra-abdominal disease.
Infections (3), Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here.
METHODS: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed.
RESULTS: Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.
A 67-year-old Japanese female with back pain and severe cachexia visited our hospital. The diagnosis was disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (dMAC) with multiple bone involvement. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was started, but fever persisted and dislocation of cervical vertebrae has made her bedridden. Because anti-interferon (IFN)-γ autoantibody was positive, four doses of rituximab 375 mg/m(2), every 7 day, were administered. Soon after treatment, progression of osteolytic lesions and wasting has stopped. We proved that rituximab has recovered IFN-γ signaling as shown by IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. It can be a promising option for dMAC cases with anti-IFN-γ autoantibody.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0774c protein was reported previously to express under stress conditions. Therefore, Rv0774c gene was cloned and expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate host, to determine its role in bacterial persistence and immune modulation in natural environment. The bacterial colonies expressing Rv0774c (Ms_rv0774c) were larger, smoother, more moist, and flatter than the control ones (Ms_ve). Enhanced survival of Ms_rv0774c after treatment with streptomycin was observed when compared with control. The cell envelope of Ms_rv0774c was demonstrated to have more trehalose di-mycolate (TDM) and lesser amount of mycolylmannosylphosphorylheptaprenol (Myc-PL) in comparison to control. Higher intracellular survival rate was observed for Ms_rv0774c as compared to Ms_ve in the THP-1 cells. This could be correlated to the reduction in the levels of reactive NO and iNOS expression. Infection of macrophages with Ms_rv0774c resulted in significantly increased expression of TLR2 receptor and IL-10 cytokines. However, it lowered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 in Ms_rv0774c infected macrophages in comparison to the control and could be associated with decreased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Though, predicted with high antigenicity index bioinformatically, extracellular in nature and accessible to host milieu, Rv0774c was not able to generate humoral response in patient samples. Overall, the present findings indicated that Rv0774c altered the morphology and streptomycin sensitivity by altering the lipid composition of M. smegmatis as well as modulated the immune response in favor of bacterial persistence.
Cardiovascular Diseases (2) Tuberculosis (2), Infections (1), more mentions
... cases were identified as of disseminated M. kansasii infection with cutaneous lesions, and thecase presented here appears to be the second involving an immunocompetent individual. Special attention should be paid to a persistent and chronic rash following a chronic respiratory syndrome in order to exclude skin disease caused by non-tuberculousmycobacteria Keyword: Cutaneous lesions. Keyword: Disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii infection.
Infection with Mycobacterium marinum is often difficult to diagnose. Infection with M. marinum in the upper extremity may involve the tendon sheaths, producing clinical manifestations such as tenosynovitis and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. We report 3 cases of M. marinum infection of the hand associated with carpal tunnel syndrome during an outbreak in New York City's Chinatown. A combination of carpal tunnel release, flexor tenosynovectomy, and appropriate antibiotics yielded complete resolution of symptoms in all cases.
... prevalence of tuberculosis continues to be high, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has also emerged worldwide... to (i) discriminate between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and NTM using rv0577 or RD750, (ii) differentiate M. tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis ... targeting mtbk_20680, and (iv) simultaneously detect five clinically important NTM (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M ... Keyword: nontuberculousmycobacteria.
Cardiovascular Diseases (9) Tuberculosis (9), Infections (1), more mentions
We explored in detail the nationwide existence of Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. In 18 months, 12 new cases of M. riyadhense infection were observed, predominantly among Saudi nationals, as a cause of pulmonary disease. M. riyadhense may be emerging as a more common pathogen in Saudi Arabia.
Mycobacterium gordonae, a low pathogenicity organism, is rarely implicated in skin and soft tissue infections. We present a 77-year-old returned diabetic traveler from rural Sudan with cutaneous M. gordonae infection. Several months of ciprofloxacin, rifampin and ethambutol led to resolution of his plaque, without signs of recurrence at 6-month follow-up.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). An Aspergillus-positive respiratory specimen often reflects colonization, and thus the clinical significance of Aspergillus isolation in MAC-LD patients is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MAC-LD patients in whom Aspergillus was isolated from respiratory specimens. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 329 MAC-LD patients. We compared the characteristics and mortality rates between patients with Aspergillus isolation and those without. All Aspergillus species detected from respiratory specimens within the follow-up period were reviewed. Aspergillus was detected in 40 (12.2%) of the 329 patients. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics and mortality rates between patients with and without Aspergillus isolation. Among the 40 patients with Aspergillus isolation, 9 (22.5%) developed CPA. CPA was most often caused by A. fumigatus. In the 40 Aspergillus-positive patients, patients with A. fumigatus isolation had a significantly higher mortality rate than those without (P < 0.001). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed older age (P = 0.050), presence of respiratory comorbidities (P = 0.008), hypoalbuminemia (P < 0.001), and isolation of A. fumigatus (P = 0.005) to be prognostic factors for mortality in MAC-LD patients. There was no significant difference in the mortality rates between patients with Aspergillus isolation and those without. However, isolation of A. fumigatus may be associated with poor prognosis in MAC-LD patients.
Lung Diseases (2), Hypoalbuminemia (1), Pulmonary Aspergillosis (1), more mentions