Abstract: Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that affects persons of all ages and is associated with millions of medical visits, hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations, and thousands of deaths during annual winter epidemics of variable severity in the United States. Elderly persons have the highest influenza-associated hospitalization and mortality rates.
Immune System Diseases (2) Human Influenza (4), Infections (1), more mentions
The growth of digital communication technologies for public health is offering an unconventional means to engage the general public in monitoring community health. Here we present Influenzanet, a participatory system for the syndromic surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Europe. Through standardized online surveys, the system collects detailed profile information and self-reported symptoms volunteered by participants resident in the Influenzanet countries. Established in 2009, it now includes 10 countries representing more than half of the 28 member states of the European Union population. The experience of 7 influenza seasons illustrates how Influenzanet has become an adjunct to existing ILI surveillance networks, offering coherence across countries, inclusion of nonmedically attended ILI, flexibility in case definition, and facilitating individual-level epidemiological analyses generally not possible in standard systems. Having the sensitivity to timely detect substantial changes in population health, Influenzanet has the potential to become a viable instrument for a wide variety of applications in public health preparedness and control.
Abstract: Influenzavirusinfection remains one of the largest disease burdens on humans ... Influenza-associated bacterial co-infections contribute to severe disease and mortality during pandemic and seasonal ... The mechanisms of severe morbidity following influenza-bacteria co-infections mainly include failure of an antibacterial immune response and pathogen ... study of mechanisms of severe disease, caused by bacterial co-infections following influenzavirus pathogenesis, are summarized.
Human Influenza (7), Coinfections (6), Infections (2), more mentions
AbstractText: The role of influenzavirus in patients presenting at ED during seasonal-epidemic periods has ... 784 (63.3%), 213 (27.2%) of whom were positive for the influenzavirus: CAP 52/177 (29.4%), SAS 115/447 (25.7%) and PSSI ... intensive care unit AbstractText: Our results indicate that during seasonal influenza epidemics, Influenzavirus-positivity rate is similar in patients attending ED for influenza ...
Men's Health (3) Human Influenza (10), Heart Failure (2), Pneumonia (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The five-wave epidemic of H7N9 in China emerged in the second half of 2016. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics among the five waves, estimating the possible infected cases and inferring the extent of the possible epidemic in the areas that have not reported cases before.
METHODS: The data for the H7N9 cases from Zhejiang Province between 2013 and 2017 was obtained from the China Information Network System of Disease Prevention and Control. The start date of each wave was 16 March 2013, 1 July 2013, 1 July 2014, 1 July 2015 and 1 July 2016. The F test or Pearson's chi-square test were used to compare the characteristics of the five waves. Global and local autocorrelation analysis was carried out to identify spatial autocorrelations. Ordinary kriging interpolation was analyzed to estimate the number of human infections with H7N9 virus and to infer the extent of infections in the areas with no cases reported before.
RESULT: There were 45, 94, 45, 34 and 80 cases identified from the first wave to the fifth, respectively. The death rate was significantly different among the five waves of epidemics (χ2 = 10.784, P = 0.029). The age distribution (F = 0.903, P = 0.462), gender (χ2 = 2.674, P = 0.614) and occupation(χ2 = 19.764, P = 0.407) were similar in each period. Most of the cases were males and farmers. A significant trend (χ2 = 70.328, P<0.001) was identified that showed a growing proportion of rural cases. There were 31 high-high clusters and 3 high-low clusters at the county level among the five waves and 12, 8, 2, 9 and 3 clusters in each wave, respectively. The total cases infected with the H7N9 virus were far more than those that have been reported now, and the affected areas continue to expand. The epidemic in the north of Zhejiang Province persisted in all five waves. Since the second wave, the virus spread to the south areas and central areas. There was an obvious decline in the infected cases in the urban areas, and the epidemics mostly occurred in the rural areas after the fourth wave. The epidemic was relatively dispersed since the third wave had fewer than two cases in most of the areas and showed a reinforcing trend again in the fifth wave.
CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that there were few differences in the epidemiologic characteristics among the five waves of the epidemic. However, the areas where the possible epidemic circulated was larger than reported. The epidemic cross-regional expansion continued and mostly occurred in rural areas. Continuous closure of the live poultry market (LPM) is strongly recommended in both rural and urban areas. Illegal and scattered live poultry trading, especially in rural areas, must be forbidden. It is suggested too that a more rigorous management be performed on live poultry trade and wholesale across the area. Health education, surveillance of cases and pathogenicity should also be strengthened.
IFITM3 rs12252-C was associated with severe influenzavirusinfection in several studies, however whether this association is universal to all types of influenzavirus or diverse ethnic populations remain controversial ... in Chinese population, and this strong effect was observed in all subtypes of seasonal influenzainfection Keyword: genetic susceptibility.
Human Influenza (9), Infections (3), Respiratory Tract Infections (2), more mentions
We describe the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9) based on poultry market environmental surveillance and laboratory-confirmed human cases (n = 9) in Guangdong, China. We also compare the epidemiology between human cases of high- and low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) (n = 51) in Guangdong. Case fatality and severity were similar. Touching sick or dead poultry was the most important risk factor for HPAI A(H7N9) infections and should be highlighted for the control of future influenza A(H7N9) epidemics.
Avian Influenza (3), Human Influenza (2), Infections (2), more mentions
Abstract: Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose an enormous and unpredictable global public health threat, largely due to the continual evolution of escape from pre-existing immunity and the potential for zoonotic emergence. Understanding how the unique genetic make-up and structure of IAV populations influences their transmission and evolution is essential for developing more effective vaccines, therapeutics, and ...
OBJECTIVES: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ZOSTAVAX™ (ZV) administered concomitantly with quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) in adults≥50years of age (NCT02519855).
METHODS: Overall, 440 participants were randomized into the Concomitant Group (CG) and 442 into the Sequential Group (SG). The CG received ZV and IIV4 at separate injection sites on Day 1 and matching placebo at Week 4. The SG received placebo and IIV4 (2015-2016 influenza season) at separate injection sites on Day 1 and ZV at Week 4.
IMMUNOGENICITY ENDPOINTS: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) from baseline to 4weeks postvaccination, measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) and adjusted for age and prevaccination titer. Influenza strain-specific GMT at baseline and 4weeks postvaccination was measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay.
SAFETY ENDPOINTS: Injection-site and systemic adverse experiences (AEs) within 28days following any vaccination and serious AEs throughout the study.
RESULTS: The adjusted VZV antibody GMT ratio (CG/SG) was 0.87 (95%CI: 0.80, 0.95), meeting the prespecified noninferiority criterion. The VZV antibody GMFR in the CG was 1.9 (95%CI: 1.76, 2.05), meeting the acceptability criterion. Influenza antibody GMT ratios for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria were 1.02 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.18), 1.10 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.29), 1.00 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.14), and 0.99 (95%CI: 0.87, 1.13), respectively. The frequency of vaccine-related injection-site and systemic AEs was comparable between groups. No vaccine-related serious AE was observed.
CONCLUSION: The concomitant administration of ZV and IIV4 to adults≥50years of age induced VZV-specific and influenza-specific antibody responses that were comparable to those following administration of either vaccine alone, and was generally well tolerated.
Vaccines (7), Infectious Diseases (1) Human Influenza (6), Herpes Zoster (4), Chickenpox (1), more mentions
Abstract: Influenza A virus (IAV) is a pathogen that poses significant risks to human ... B4GALNT2 overexpression prevented the infection of every avian influenzavirus strain tested, including the H5, H9, and H7 subtypes, which ... dCas9 activation technology to identify a factor that can abolish infection by avian influenzaviruses Keyword: B4GALNT2.
Avian Influenza (4), Human Influenza (4), Infections (4), more mentions
Abstract: The highly conserved cytoplasmic tail of influenzavirus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) contains three cysteines, post-translationally modified by ... which help lower the energetic barrier to pore expansion.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus is an air-borne pathogen causing seasonal epidemics and occasional ... glycoprotein abundant on the virion surface is important both in influenza A virus assembly and entry.
Abstract: During the European 2016/17 influenza season, A(H3N2) viruses have predominated and the majority clustered in genetic subclade 3C.2a1... Keyword: Influenzavirus. Keyword: Season. Keyword: Surveillance.
However, S-IgA itself has not gained much attention of late, despite its importance to mucosal immunity; therefore, some important questions remain. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular characteristics of S-IgA and its role in intranasal mucosal vaccines against influenzavirusinfection Keyword: Influenza. Keyword: Influenzavirus. Keyword: Intranasal inactivated influenza vaccine.
Abstract: Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells... indicate that IAV usurps ZBTB25 for IAV RNA synthesis and serves as a novel and potential therapeutic anti-viral target.IMPORTANCE IAV-induced seasonal influenza causes severe illness and death in high risk populations.
Abstract: Influenza A viruses pose a constant potential threat to human health... Our findings demonstrate that influenzaviruses can develop increased resistance to the antiviral activity of type III interferons.
Immune System Diseases (3) Human Influenza (4), H1N1 Influenza (3), more mentions
This study examined the cost-effectiveness of molecular POCT for detection of influenzaviruses in Hong Kong elderly patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) in the outpatient clinics AbstractText: A decision analytic model was used to simulate outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of elderly patients presented with ILI at outpatient ...