BACKGROUND: Parotid swelling is rarely caused by pneumoparotitis from retrograde insufflation of air into Stensen's duct. Previous reports have identified occupational exposures, self-induced habits, exercise, spirometry, and short-term positive pressure airway ventilation as causes of salivary duct insufflation.
METHODS: We present 2 cases of pneumoparotitis in patients on long-term oronasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea.
RESULTS: A diagnosis of pneumoparotitis was made by CT scan in case 1 and sialography in case 2. Patients were advised to transition from oronasal to nasal-only CPAP. One patient was successfully transferred and had good symptomatic improvement, whereas the second patient did not tolerate nasal CPAP and had persistent symptoms on oronasal CPAP.
CONCLUSION: Long-term use of oronasal CPAP is a potential cause of pneumoparotitis.
AbstractText: Although an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) has been reported, to the authors' knowledge the clinical significance of this epidemiological finding remains unknown. Therefore, the authors analyzed the oncologic outcomes of HCV-infected patients with OPCs AbstractText: In this retrospective cohort study, all patients with OPCs who were seen at The University of ...
BACKGROUND: Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ) is a well-recognized complication of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to assess predictive factors for the development of ORNJ.
METHODS: A retrospective study of 325 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated at one institution between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008, was conducted. Outcome measure was the presence/absence of ORNJ. Time to event was recorded and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to determine statistically significant predictive factors.
RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients had ORNJ. Statistical analysis using Cox regression analysis identified several statistically significant variables: dentoalveolar surgery; peri-resective surgery of the jaw; continued tobacco usage after radiotherapy, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2); and total radiation dose.
CONCLUSION: Patients at greater risk of developing ORNJ can be identified and measures can be instituted to reduce its incidence and expedite management when it does occur.
Endocrine Disorders (1), Oncology (1) Squamous Cell Carcinoma (1), Head and Neck Neoplasms (1), Diabetes Mellitus (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, etiology, and management of head and neck cancer are evolving. Understanding the perspectives and priorities of nonresearchers regarding treatment uncertainties is important to inform future research.
METHODS: Using the James Lind Alliance approach, patients, caregivers, and clinicians responded to a survey regarding their unanswered questions about treating and managing head and neck cancer. Distinct uncertainties were extracted from responses and sorted into themes. Uncertainties already answered in the literature were removed. Those remaining were ranked by patients and clinicians to develop a short list of priorities, which were discussed at a workshop and reduced to the top 10.
RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one respondents posed 818 uncertainties, culminating in 77 for interim ranking and 27 for discussion at a workshop. Participants reached consensus on the top 10, which included questions on prevention, screening, treatment, and quality of life.
CONCLUSION: Nonresearchers can effectively collaborate to establish priorities for future research in head and neck cancer.
Agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are used to treat head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, their efficacy and safety is poorly understood. Here we evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-EGFR agents administered concurrently with standard therapies for HNSCC. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated addition of EGFR targeted therapy versus standard therapy alone were included. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), locoregional control, and severe adverse events (SAEs, grade ≥ 3). Sixteen eligible trials with 4031 patients were included. Addition of anti-EGFR regimens to standard therapy significantly improved OS of patients with HNSCC (HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.96), with a moderately elevated rate of SAEs (RR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13). Subgroup analysis indicated that the survival benefit was observed when cetuximab was administered concurrently with radiotherapy (RT) for stage III/IV patients (HR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.94; P = 0.01), or with chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC (HR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; P = 0.005). Significantly increased ORR (RR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.05-2.18) and PFS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88) were found in R/M HNSCC patients treated with anti-EGFR plus chemotherapy, while no significant improvements were found in stage III/IV patients treated with anti-EGFR plus standard therapy. In conclusion, addition of cetuximab to standard therapy may improve outcomes for R/M HNSCC patients, while causing a moderate increase in SAEs. For stage III/IV patients, anti-EGFR mAb plus RT can improve OS compared with RT alone, while replacement of chemotherapy with EGFR mAb or adding EGFR mAb to combined chemotherapy and RT did not improve outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this clinical review was to assess the feasibility of reconstructing complex head and neck defects with 2 or more free flaps simultaneously.
METHODS: A total of 38 articles were reviewed. The patient population included those who received 2 or more free flaps or a single free flap plus a locoregional flap. The primary outcome assessed was rate of complications.
RESULTS: Among double flaps, the minor complication rate was 6.96% and the major complication rate was 20.0%. In comparison, the free flap plus locoregional flap group had higher rates of minor and major complications of 30.4% and 29.5%, respectively. The median operating time was 660 minutes for double flaps and 602 minutes for free flap plus locoregional flap (P = .828).
CONCLUSION: Compared to the single free flap plus locoregional flap, double free flaps are relatively reliable without increasing surgical complications or decreasing flap survival, while only modestly increasing operating times.
INTRODUCTION: Head injuries represent a concern in skiing and snowboarding, with traumatic brain injuries being the most common cause of death.
AIM: To describe the mechanisms of head and face injuries among World Cup alpine and freestyle skiers and snowboarders.
METHODS: We performed a qualitative analysis of videos obtained of head and face injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System during 10 World Cup seasons (2006-2016). We analysed 57 head impact injury videos (alpine n=29, snowboard n=13, freestyle n=15), first independently and subsequently in a consensus meeting.
RESULTS: During the crash sequence, most athletes (84%) impacted the snow with the skis or board first, followed by the upper or lower extremities, buttocks/pelvis, back and, finally, the head. Alpine skiers had sideways (45%) and backwards pitching falls (35%), with impacts to the rear (38%) and side (35%) of the helmet. Freestyle skiers and snowboarders had backwards pitching falls (snowboard 77%, freestyle 53%), mainly with impacts to the rear of the helmet (snowboard 69%, freestyle 40%). There were three helmet ejections among alpine skiers (10% of cases), and 41% of alpine skiing injuries occurred due to inappropriate gate contact prior to falling. Athletes had one (47%) or two (28%) head impacts, and the first impact was the most severe (71%). Head impacts were mainly on snow (83%) on a downward slope (63%).
CONCLUSION: This study has identified several characteristics of the mechanisms of head injuries, which may be addressed to reduce risk.
Craniocerebral Trauma (3), Traumatic Brain Injuries (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this cadaveric study was to determine the efficacy of a flexible, next-generation robotic surgical system for transoral robotic hypopharyngectomy.
METHODS: A comparative evaluation study of the flexible versus rigid robotic surgical systems for the hypopharynx was conducted using 3 cadavers. Endpoints for assessment were visualization of the hypopharynx, access to the hypopharynx, and difficulty of dissection. Hypopharyngectomy was performed on 3 other cadavers using the da Vinci Sp surgical system.
RESULTS: Access to the apex of the pyriform sinus and the esophageal inlet was easier with the da Vinci Sp than with the da Vinci Si. Dissection with the da Vinci Sp was easier in all areas of the hypopharynx than with the da Vinci Si. Robotic hypopharyngectomy was successfully completed on all cadavers using the da Vinci Sp surgical system.
CONCLUSION: Preclinical testing in human cadavers suggests that flexible robotic surgery may facilitate successful transoral hypopharyngectomy.
BACKGROUND: In the present study, effectiveness of electrochemotherapy was compared in patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) of the head and neck using standard and reduced doses of bleomycin.
METHODS: Twenty-eight patients older than 65 years were prospectively treated with electrochemotherapy for nonmelanoma head and neck skin cancer. In the experimental group (n = 12 patients; 24 lesions), reduced bleomycin doses (10 000 IU/m(2) ) were used. In the control group (n = 16 patients; 28 lesions), the standard bleomycin doses (15 000 IU/m(2) ) were used. Tumor responses and side effects were monitored. These two groups were pair matched for the characteristics of patients (age, gender) and their tumors (diameter, histology type, recurrent lesions).
RESULTS: Complete tumor response at 2 months post-electrochemotherapy with the reduced bleomycin dose was 100% and with the standard bleomycin dose it was 96%. No statistically significant difference regarding skin toxicity was observed between the 2 groups (P = .20). Skin toxicity of grade 3 or less was recorded only in the control group (7% of treated lesions).
CONCLUSION: Presented results show the comparable antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy when using standard or reduced bleomycin dose in elderly patients with nonmelanoma head and neck skin cancer.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the cost differences between preoperative and postoperative placement of gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) in patients with head and neck cancer.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with aerodigestive tract cancers from 2010 to 2015. Data included inpatient and postdischarge costs, demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment, length of stay (LOS), time spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), and readmissions.
RESULTS: Five hundred ninety patients were included in this study. There was a $7624 inpatient cost savings (P = .002) for those G-tubes placed preoperatively ($26 060) versus postoperatively ($33 754). Postdischarge costs did not differ significantly between groups (P = .60). There was a $9248 total costs savings (P = .009) for those patients with G-tubes placed preoperatively ($39 751) versus postoperatively ($48 999), despite patients with preoperative G-tubes having lower body mass index (BMI; P = .009), higher Association of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class (P = .02), more preoperative radiation (P < .001), and more free tissue transfer reconstruction (P = .007).
CONCLUSION: There is potential for savings by placing G-tubes preoperatively, possibly driven by decreased LOS, despite data suggesting that patients with G-tubes placed preoperatively are higher risk.
Oncology (4), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1) Head and Neck Neoplasms (3), Deglutition Disorders (1), Neoplasms (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: We report the long-term results of a cohort of patients after radial head replacement with a bipolar design and a smooth cementless stem at a mean follow-up of 10.4 years.
METHODS: Of 17 possible patients from a previous minimum 2-year follow-up study, 16 were available for review. Patients were assessed using clinical and radiographic examination and with standardized outcome measures. Range of motion, stability, and radiographic evaluation of implant loosening and joint degeneration were assessed. Comparisons were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for unequal groups.
RESULTS: The average follow-up was 10.5 years (range, 8.5-12 years). The median visual analog scale was 1 (range, 0-5), Minnesota Elbow Performance Index was 93 (range, 70-100), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand was 7.5 (range, 0-53). Range of motion was decreased on the operative side compared with the nonoperative side for flexion/extension (P = .005) and pronation/supination (P = .015). Grip strength was decreased on the affected side (P = .045). No patients had elbow instability. Significant arthritic changes developed in 2 patients at the ulnohumeral joint. The median cantilever quotient was 0.4 (range, 0.30-0.50). Osteolysis in zones 1 to 7 was found in all but 2 patients. The median stem radiolucency was 0.5 mm (range, 0.2-0.9 mm). No reoperations occurred since our previous report. Implant survival in this cohort was 97%.
CONCLUSION: Bipolar radial head prosthesis with a smooth cementless stem effectively restores elbow stability and function after comminuted radial head fractures with or without concomitant elbow instability. Our study demonstrates excellent long-term implant survival.
Invasive fungal disease is a serious infectious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Exserohilum rostratum is a species causing phaeohyphomycosis, which rarely causes invasive disease in humans. We treated a case of sinusitis caused by E. rostratum after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 60-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome, who had a medical history of an operation to correct deviation of the nasal septum, developed sinusitis caused by E. rostratum under prolonged profound neutropenia after a second CBT because of the graft rejection of the first transplantation. Liposomal amphotericin B improved the sinusitis. A literature review revealed nine reported cases of sinusitis caused by E. rostratum, including our case. Although five cases had severe neutropenia at onset (HSCT recipients, n = 2; aplastic anemia, n = 3), the remaining four had no preexisting immunosuppressive conditions. However, three of the four patients had preexisting nasal diseases with or without a history of surgery, as in our case. Excluding our case, the outcome was fatal in five neutropenic patients, whereas the four patients without neutropenia recovered. Although sinusitis caused by E. rostratum is rare, E. rostratum should be recognized as a possible pathogen causing sinusitis in highly immunosuppressed patients such as HSCT recipients. Preexisting nasal disease and/or nasal surgery could be risks for this infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Blood Disorders and Hematology (1) Sinusitis (8), Neutropenia (4), Nose Diseases (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Head and neck surgery is not often considered a risk factor for intestinal ileus and small bowel obstruction. However, many of these patients may have had prior abdominal surgery, a known risk factor for small bowel obstruction, and may be at risk for bowel obstruction after a surgical procedure of the head and neck.
METHODS: We present a case describing a patient who, after undergoing transoral robotic surgery, experienced delayed postoperative ileus and eventual small bowel obstruction requiring exploratory laparotomy and bowel resection.
RESULTS: Although the patient required total parenteral nutrition for several days, he eventually was able to resume tube feeds, and after several months was able to tolerate an oral diet.
CONCLUSION: Although uncommon complications of head and neck surgery, intestinal ileus and small bowel obstruction can develop as the result of stress/inflammation, postoperative narcotic pain medication, and prior abdominal surgery.
Oncology (1) Ileus (4), Oropharyngeal Neoplasms (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Fretting and corrosion at the modular femoral head-femoral neck (taper) interface have been reported in retrieved total hip arthroplasty (THA) prostheses. This study investigated associations among implant design, radiographic factors, and patient factors with corrosion and fretting at the taper interface in retrieved metal-on-polyethylene modular THA prostheses.
METHODS: Ninety-two retrieved primary metal-on-polyethylene THA implants were evaluated and graded for fretting, corrosion, and damage at the taper interface, including the femoral stem trunnion and femoral head. Preoperative radiographs were assessed for osteolysis and femoral stem alignment; and medical records were reviewed for demographic data.
RESULTS: Male patients had greater head corrosion (P = .037), patient age at revision had a weak, negative correlation with trunnion corrosion ( ? = -0.20, P = .04), and both body mass index and duration of implantation had weak, positive correlations with head fretting ( ? = 0.26, P = .01 and ? = 0.33, P = .001, respectively). A weak, negative correlation was found between femoral head size and both head fretting and head corrosion ( ? = -0.26, P = .007 and ? = -0.21, P = .028, respectively), and a weak, positive correlation was found between head offset and trunnion fretting ( ? = 0.23, P = .030). Varus femoral stem alignment was associated with greater head fretting (P = .038).
CONCLUSION: Larger femoral head sizes were correlated with less severe head corrosion and head fretting, with 28-mm heads exhibiting more moderate-to-severe damage. Other factors, such as head-taper engagement and geometry, rather than head size, may affect rates of corrosion and fretting damage at the taper interface.
OBJECTIVE: Expiratory functions that clear aspiration from the airway are compromised in patients with neurogenic dysphagia for whom cough and expiratory force may be impaired by the primary disease process. The relationship between expiratory function, cough, and aspiration is less clear in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors for whom the disease process does not directly impact the lower respiratory system. Our objective was to compare mechanisms of airway clearance (expiratory force and cough) with aspiration status in postradiated HNC survivors.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
METHODS: One hundred and three disease-free HNC survivors ≥ 3-months postradiotherapy referred for modified barium swallow studies were prospectively enrolled regardless of dysphagia status. Maximum expiratory pressures (MEPs) and peak cough flow (PCF) measures were taken at enrollment and examined as a function of aspiration status using generalized linear regression methods.
RESULTS: Thirty-four (33%) patients aspirated. Maximum expiratory pressure and PCF demonstrated a moderate positive correlation (Pearson's r = 0.35). Adjusting for sex and age, MEPs were on average 19.2% lower (21.1 cm H2 O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.3, 36.8) among aspirators. Peak cough flow was also 14.9% lower (59.6 L/minute, 95% CI 15.8, 103.3) among aspirators after adjusting for age and sex.
CONCLUSION: Expiratory functions were depressed in postradiated HNC aspirators relative to nonaspirators, suggesting that airway protection impairments may extend beyond disrupted laryngopharyngeal mechanisms in the local treatment field. Exercises to strengthen subglottic expiratory force-generating capacity may offer an adjunctive therapeutic target to improve airway protection in chronic aspirators after head and neck radiotherapy.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017.
Oncology (3) Cough (7), Head and Neck Neoplasms (3), Deglutition Disorders (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the benefit of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in addition to nutritional counseling in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT).
METHODS: In a single-center, randomized, pragmatic, parallel-group controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02055833; February 2014-August 2016), 159 newly diagnosed HNC patients suitable for to RT regardless of previous surgery and induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned to nutritional counseling in combination with ONS (N = 78) or without ONS (N = 81) from the start of RT and continuing for up to 3 months after its end. Primary endpoint was the change in body weight at the end of RT. Secondary endpoints included changes in protein-calorie intake, muscle strength, phase angle and quality of life and anti-cancer treatment tolerance.
RESULTS: In patients with the primary endpoint assessed (modified intention-to-treat population), counseling plus ONS (N = 67) resulted in smaller loss of body weight than nutritional counseling alone (N = 69; mean difference, 1.6 kg [95%CI, 0.5-2.7]; P = 0.006). Imputation of missing outcomes provided consistent findings. In the ONS-supplemented group, higher protein-calorie intake and improvement in quality of life over time were also observed (P < 0.001 for all). The use of ONS reduced the need for changes in scheduled anti-cancer treatments (i.e. for RT and/or systemic treatment dose reduction or complete suspension, HR=0.40 [95%CI, 0.18-0.91], P = 0.029).
CONCLUSION: In HNC patients undergoing RT or RT plus systemic treatment, and receiving nutritional counseling, the use of ONS resulted in better weight maintenance, increased protein-calorie intake, improved quality of life and was associated with better anti-cancer treatment tolerance.
Oncology (6) Head and Neck Neoplasms (3), Neoplasms (3), Malnutrition (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To characterize trends in rhinosinusitis clinical trials to provide recommendations for therapeutic directions, highlight possible redundancy, and provide a framework for prioritization of future clinical trials.
STUDY DESIGN: Database analysis.
METHODS: Data were collected from ClinicalTrials.gov including all clinical trials that focused on rhinosinusitis with the exclusion of trials withdrawn prior to enrollment. Variables recorded included study design, study population, pharmaceutical involvement, publication, and whether a trial was a medical or surgical intervention. Associated publications were identified using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases.
RESULTS: There were 269 rhinosinusitis clinical trials, dating from 1993 to 2017, that met inclusion reauirements. Of the studies included in this analysis, 51.7% had at least one scientific publication, and of those with publications, 80.6% had positive results and 19.3% had negative results. Twenty-three clinical trials (8.5%) studied drugs already approved for rhinosinusitis, 113 (42.0%) trials studied drugs that were approved for other uses, 42 (15.6%) trials studied experimental drugs, and 102 (39.4%) studied surgical intervention. Of the trials studying drugs, the data showed many clinical trials that studied the same drug. The data demonstrate a steady decline in clinical trials with medical intervention and a rise in clinical trials with surgical intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis is the first to characterize rhinosinusitis clinical trials, highlighting the over-representation of certain drugs and demonstrating an increased focus on clinical trials employing surgical intervention. We provide a framework to discuss prioritization of future studies to guide clinical and research practice.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2017.
OBJECTIVE: To quantify changes in motor function, sensation, and lower extremity quality of life following anterior lateral thigh free flap (ALT) resection.
METHODS: This mixed methods study contained both a prospective cohort arm (n = 20) and retrospective cross-sectional arm (n = 20). In both arms, patients underwent formal motor and sensation testing of the ipsilateral and contralateral thigh by sphygmomanometry and monofilament testing. In the prospective arm, data was collected preoperatively and at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up visits. In the retrospective arm, consecutive patients with a minimum of 6-month postoperative follow-up were enrolled.
RESULTS: Postoperatively, 82% of participants endorsed some degree of numbness and tingling at the donor site. On monofilament testing, patients from the prospective arm showed decreased sensibility of the midthigh at both the 6- and 12-month assessment (P < 0.01). Two-point discrimination scores were moderately correlated with the cross-sectional surface area of the flap. Donor thighs demonstrated a similar peak isometric quadriceps contraction (retrospective [retro]: 47 ± 24 mmHg, prospective [pro]: 90 ± 36 mmHg) to the unoperated thighs (retro: 43 mmHg ± 22, pro: 69 ± 35.3 mmHg, P = 0.49). When stratified by perforator anatomy, no significant differences were noted. Subjective donor site morbidity measured with the lower extremity function scale demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the preoperative and 12-month postoperative assessment.
CONCLUSION: The ALT flap offers minimal donor site morbidity. Reduced sensibility of the ALT flap is a common complaint among patients. Quadriceps strength is not significantly affected by an ALT free flap harvest.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2017.
Oncology (1) Head and Neck Neoplasms (1), Hypesthesia (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVES: To determine postoperative complications and mortality rates in octogenarian and older head and neck cancer patients undergoing ablative surgical resections and to identify factors associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality.
METHODS: Retrospective cohort study investigating risk factors for 30-day serious complication risk and 90-day mortality risk for patients aged 80 years and older who underwent ablative head and neck oncologic surgical procedures at an academic tertiary care center between 2005 and 2015.
RESULTS: Of the 219 patients who underwent 241 surgeries, 74 patients experienced serious complications within 30 days and 25 died within 90 days of surgery. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of 4 or greater, and operating room (OR) time ≥6 hours were independently associated with serious complications, whereas age ≥90 years, overall severe comorbidity score, presence of preoperative dysphagia, and large extent of resection were associated with increased risk of death in 90 days. Models to predict risk of 30-day serious complications and 90-day mortality were then developed.
CONCLUSION: Patient and surgical treatment factors predict risk of serious complications and mortality in patients aged 80 years and older undergoing ablative head and neck surgery. Predictive models may guide preoperative discussion with patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017.
Oncology (2) Head and Neck Neoplasms (2), Deglutition Disorders (1), more mentions