BACKGROUND: The "gold standard" treatment of anterolateral capsular injuries in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ACL reconstruction and extra-articular reconstruction on joint motion in the ACL-deficient knee and in the combined ACL and anterolateral capsule-deficient knee.
METHODS: An anterior tibial load of 134 N and internal tibial torque of 7 Nm were applied to 7 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees using a robotic testing system continuously throughout the range of flexion. The resulting joint motion was recorded for 6 knee states: intact, ACL-deficient, ACL-reconstructed, combined ACL and anterolateral capsule-deficient, ACL-reconstructed + anterolateral capsule-deficient, and ACL-reconstructed + extra-articular tenodesis.
RESULTS: Anterior tibial translation of the ACL-reconstructed + anterolateral capsule-deficient knee in response to an anterior tibial load was restored to that of the intact knee at all knee-flexion angles (p > 0.05). However, for this knee state, internal tibial rotation in response to internal tibial torque was not restored to that of the intact knee at 60° or 90° of knee flexion (p < 0.05). For the knee state of ACL-reconstructed + extra-articular tenodesis, internal rotation in response to internal tibial torque was restored to the motion of the intact knee at each of the tested knee-flexion angles (p > 0.05). Compared with the intact knee, 2 of 7 specimens showed decreased internal tibial rotation with ACL reconstruction + extra-articular tenodesis.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, an extra-articular tenodesis was necessary to restore rotatory knee stability in response to internal tibial torque in a combined ACL and anterolateral capsule-deficient knee. The amount of rotatory knee instability should be carefully assessed to avoid over-constraint of the knee in these combined ligament-reconstruction procedures.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: On the basis of our findings, the surgical procedure needs to be personalized depending on the amount of rotatory knee instability in the injured knee and the amount of rotation in the contralateral knee.
AbstractText: Phalloplasty with urethral lengthening is the procedure of choice for female-to-male transgender patients who desire an aesthetic phallus and standing micturition, but is associated with complications, including urethral stricture and fistula formation. Horizontal urethra construction can be accomplished with labia minora flaps covered with additional vascularized layers of vestibular tissue when vaginectomy is performed concomitantly with phalloplasty.
Urethral Stricture (4), Fistula (3), Transsexualism (1), more mentions
Research is intended to verify if thermal imaging can be used in diagnosing and monitoring the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).This disease is not easy to diagnose using traditional methods. Also, the difficulties in monitoring carpal tunnel surgery effects necessitate new, noninvasive method, which gives more information.The research group consists of 15 patients with CTS and control group of healthy people. All patients who were examined before surgery were also tested 4 weeks after surgery, to check the effects of treatment. In addition a lot of our patients had or will have open carpel tunnel release surgery. Diagnosis of CTS was performed by thermal imaging in both hands from phalanges to the area of the wrist on the external and palmar side of the palm.Using infrared (IR) camera one can observe high temperature gradient on hand-tested areas and these differences prove the diagnosis. Moreover patients after surgery have better temperature distribution and it was closer to control group. Results prove that surgery is the best, and currently, the only method to treat CTS.Thermal imaging may be helpful in diagnosing CTS.
BACKGROUND: Surgeons commonly provide enoxaparin prophylaxis to high-risk patients to decrease venous thromboembolism risk. The authors' prior work demonstrated that most patients receive inadequate venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, based on anti-factor Xa level, when enoxaparin 40 mg/day is provided and that peak anti-factor Xa level correlates with weight. This study models a weight-based strategy for daily enoxaparin prophylaxis and its impact on anti-factor Xa levels.
METHODS: The authors enrolled plastic surgery patients who received enoxaparin 40 mg/day and had anti-factor Xa levels drawn. The enoxaparin dose of 40 mg was converted to a milligram-per-kilogram dose for each patient. Stratified analysis examined the milligram-per-kilogram dose that produced low, in-range, and high anti-factor Xa levels to identify the appropriate milligram-per-kilogram dose to optimize venous thromboembolism prevention and bleeding events.
RESULTS: Among 94 patients, weight-based dosing ranged from 0.28 to 0.94 mg/kg once daily. For peak and trough anti-factor Xa levels, there was nearly complete overlap for milligram-per-kilogram dosing that produced low versus in-range anti-factor Xa levels. For peak anti-factor Xa, there was nearly complete overlap for milligram-per-kilogram dosing that produced in-range versus high anti-factor Xa levels. Mean milligram-per-kilogram dose was not significantly different between patients who did or did not have postoperative venous thromboembolism (0.41 mg/kg versus 0.52 mg/kg; p = 0.085) or clinically relevant bleeding (0.48 mg/kg versus 0.51 mg/kg; p = 0.73).
CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in enoxaparin dose magnitude based on patient weight cannot allow a high proportion of patients to achieve appropriate anti-factor Xa levels when once-daily enoxaparin prophylaxis is provided. Future research should examine the impact of increased enoxaparin dose frequency on anti-factor Xa levels, venous thromboembolism events, and bleeding.
CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.
Cardiovascular Diseases (7) Venous Thromboembolism (7), more mentions
Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.
All original articles that met the authors' inclusion criteria and were published in the following three journals from 2008 to 2013 were included: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine what study-specific variables were associated with conflict-of-interest disclosures AbstractText: A total ...
Opioid addiction is a public health crisis that affects all areas of medicine. Large numbers of the population across all racial and economic demographics misuse prescription opioids and use illicit opioids. The current understanding is that opioid misuse is a disease that requires treatment, and is not an issue of choice or character. Use of opioid medication is a necessary part of postoperative analgesia, but many physicians are unsure of how to do this safely given the risk of patients developing an opioid misuse disorder. This review gives an update of the current state of the opioid crisis, explains how current surgeons' prescribing practices are contributing to it, and gives recommendations on how to use opioid medication safely in the perioperative period.
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Importance: Warfarin use accounts for more medication-related emergency department visits among older patients than any other drug. Whether genotype-guided warfarin dosing can prevent these adverse events is unknown.
Objective: To determine whether genotype-guided dosing improves the safety of warfarin initiation.
Design, Setting, and Patients: The randomized clinical Genetic Informatics Trial (GIFT) of Warfarin to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis included patients aged 65 years or older initiating warfarin for elective hip or knee arthroplasty and was conducted at 6 US medical centers. Enrollment began in April 2011 and follow-up concluded in October 2016.
Interventions: Patients were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: VKORC1-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 V433M. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomized to genotype-guided (n = 831) or clinically guided (n = 819) warfarin dosing on days 1 through 11 of therapy and to a target international normalized ratio (INR) of either 1.8 or 2.5. The recommended doses of warfarin were open label, but the patients and clinicians were blinded to study group assignment.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the composite of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Patients underwent a screening lower-extremity duplex ultrasound approximately 1 month after arthroplasty.
Results: Among 1650 randomized patients (mean age, 72.1 years [SD, 5.4 years]; 63.6% women; 91.0% white), 1597 (96.8%) received at least 1 dose of warfarin therapy and completed the trial (n = 808 in genotype-guided group vs n = 789 in clinically guided group). A total of 87 patients (10.8%) in the genotype-guided group vs 116 patients (14.7%) in the clinically guided warfarin dosing group met at least 1 of the end points (absolute difference, 3.9% [95% CI, 0.7%-7.2%], P = .02; relative rate [RR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.95]). The numbers of individual events in the genotype-guided group vs the clinically guided group were 2 vs 8 for major bleeding (RR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.05-1.15), 56 vs 77 for INR of 4 or greater (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99), 33 vs 38 for venous thromboembolism (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.54-1.34), and there were no deaths.
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty and treated with perioperative warfarin, genotype-guided warfarin dosing, compared with clinically guided dosing, reduced the combined risk of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Further research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of personalized warfarin dosing.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006733.
Cardiovascular Diseases (3) Venous Thromboembolism (3), Deep Vein Thrombosis (1), Venous Thrombosis (1), more mentions
... to iliac bone autograft in the setting of secondary alveolar cleftrepair... A prospective study was conducted with 31 patients and 36 repairs of the alveolar cleft over a 2-year period... demonstrate comparable bone regrowth and density values following secondary alveolar cleftrepair using rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold versus autologous iliac bone graft ...
This study explores the relationship among payor type, revision procedures, and the completion of breastreconstruction AbstractText: A retrospective cohort study was created including patients who underwent breastreconstruction at the authors' institution from 1996 to 2016 ... was no difference in the proportion of patients undergoing symmetry procedures or nipple-areola reconstruction AbstractText: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate discrepancies in number of procedures, revisions, and the proportion of patients completing breastreconstruction among insurance types ...
RATIONALE: Classic Hodgkin lymphoma with pelvic involvement is a rare entity. Diagnosis and treatment for such an uncommon disease are challenging. Here we report a special case of classic Hodgkin lymphoma in pelvis.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 20-year-old woman was admitted to our department due to left hip symptoms. The patient reported a history of drenching night sweats, low-grade fever, pruritic rash on the body, and an almost 15% weight loss during the previous 3 months.
DIAGNOSES: Imaging studies revealed osteolytic destruction of the left hemi-pelvic with a huge soft-tissue mass. Open biopsy established the pathological diagnosis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma.
INTERVENTIONS: Considering the B symptom, bulky disease, and high risk of pathological fracture of the patient, we performed limb-salvage surgery and 6 cycles ABVD chemotherapy with 2 cycles before surgery.
OUTCOMES: Up to now, at the 3-year follow-up, there is no sign of disease relapse and metastasis. Besides, her limb function recovered well.
LESSONS: Based on this case and literature we reviewed, diagnoses for primary bone Hodgkin lymphoma should be cautious. For the treatment, chemotherapy was the main treatment option. Classic Hodgkin lymphoma patients seldom received tumor resection surgery, but for the special bone classic Hodgkin lymphoma individual with a huge tumor volume and high risk of pathological fracture in our study, limb-salvage surgery based on ABVD chemotherapy provided a satisfying clinical outcome.
Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1), Oncology (1) Hodgkin Disease (8), Neoplasms (2), Bone Neoplasms (1), more mentions
AIMS: Few studies have examined the long-term outcome of carpal tunnel release (CTR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient-reported long-term outcome of CTR for electrophysiologically severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the long-term outcome of 40 patients with bilateral severe CTS who underwent 80 CTRs (46 open, 34 endoscopic) between 2002 and 2012. The outcomes studied were patient-reported outcomes of numbness resolution, the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) score, and patient satisfaction.
RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 9.3 years. Complete resolution of numbness was reported by 93.8% of patients, persistent numbness by 3.8%, and recurrent numbness by 2.5%. The mean BCTQ symptom score was 1.1 (sd 0.3; 1.0 to 2.55) and the mean Boston function score was 1.15 (sd 0.46; 1.0 to 3.5). 72.5% of patients were asymptomatic and had no functional impairment. Men had poorer outcomes than women and patients < 55 years had poorer outcomes than patients ≥ 55 years. All patients who had undergone endoscopic CTR reported complete resolution of numbness compared with 89.1% of those who had undergone open release (p = 0.047). There was no significant difference in outcome between dominant and non-dominant hands. Patient satisfaction rates were good. There were no adverse events.
CONCLUSION: CTR has a favourable outcome and good rates of satisfaction, even in patients with bilateral severe CTS at a mean of nine years after surgery. Endoscopic CTR has a higher rate of numbness resolution than open surgery. There were no significant differences in outcome between the dominant and non-dominant hand. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1348-53.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Hypesthesia (6), Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (4), more mentions
... rare adverse events over 10 years after implantation AbstractText: The Breast Implant Follow-Up Study is a large 10-year study ... evaluating long-term safety following primary augmentation, revision-augmentation, primary reconstruction, or revision-reconstruction with Natrelle round silicone breast implants compared with national norms and outcomes with saline implants ...
Oncology (3), Immune System Diseases (3) Multiple Sclerosis (1), Connective Tissue Diseases (1), Vulvar Neoplasms (1), more mentions
Earreconstruction with osseointegrated prosthetic implants is a well-established method of reconstruction after resection of skin malignancies on the external ear ... There is limited literature reporting technique, outcomes, and patient satisfaction.We evaluated our outcomes over a 5-year period looking at osseointegrated prosthetic reconstruction after auriculectomy for external ear skin malignancies ...
BACKGROUND: Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and tranexamic acid (TXA) are synthetic amino acid derivatives that interfere with fibrinolysis, promoting hemostasis by pharmacological means. Although both drugs have been shown to decrease blood loss with a minimal risk of thromboembolic adverse events following cardiac and vascular surgery, we are aware of only 1 published trial that directly compared the antifibrinolytic effects of EACA with those of TXA after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The primary aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to determine whether TXA provides superior blood conservation following TKA compared with that provided by EACA.
METHODS: A total of 194 patients scheduled to undergo a primary unilateral TKA in the same community-based hospital were prospectively randomized to receive intravenous EACA (n = 96) or TXA (n = 98). Both the patients and the operating surgeons were blinded to the treatment assignments. Primary outcome measures included transfusions, estimated blood loss, and the drop in the hemoglobin (Hgb) level. Secondary outcomes measures included the change in the serum creatinine level, postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay.
RESULTS: Although the patients who received TXA averaged less estimated blood loss than the patients who received EACA (t185 = 2.18, p = 0.031; mean difference = 144.2 mL, 95% confidence interval = 13.62 to 274.78 mL), no transfusions were required in either group. We observed no statistically significant or clinically relevant between-group differences in the change in Hgb or serum creatinine level, postoperative complications, or length of hospital stay.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the estimated blood loss was significantly greater in the EACA group, no transfusions were required and no significant between-group differences were observed for any other outcomes measured. We concluded that EACA may be an acceptable alternative to TXA for blood conservation following TKA, although replication of our results in noninferiority trials is necessary.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Postoperative Hemorrhage (1), Joint Diseases (1), more mentions
... patient underwent revision rhinoplasty due to an irregularity on the nasal dorsum in the ECS group AbstractText: This is the first study that compares subjective and objective aesthetic and functional outcomes of crooked nose surgery according to two common septoplasty techniques in a randomized self-controlled fashion ... effective in both objectively and subjectively comparing the functional and aesthetic aspect of the patients submitted to two common different techniques of treatment of nasal deviations in crooked nose patients AbstractText: This journal requires that authors assign a level ...
Long-term postoperative splinting plays a role in the prevention of contracture of the grafted skin after a second-stage earreconstruction. The scar retraction could lead to an unfavorable aesthetic outcome. Splinting could play a role to overcome or prevent the loss of projection and the obliteration of the sulcus.We have defined the characteristics of an ideal long ...