We read with great interest the article entitled 'Hand, foot and mouth disease: an overview of clinical features in adult patients' published by I. Neri et al. in the JEADV, in which the authors reported the atypical features of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD)observed over 16 months. We recently witnessed an outbreak of atypical HFDM with well defined features, almost exclusively affecting adults, and we would therefore like to report and compare our experience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (2), Enterovirus Infections (1), more mentions
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BACKGROUND: Studies have reported high tumour response rates for platinum-containing regimens in the treatment of women with metastatic breast cancer. Most of these studies were conducted prior to the 'intrinsic subtype' era, and did not specifically focus on metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (mTNBCs).
OBJECTIVES: To identify and review the evidence from randomised trials comparing platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing platinum in the management of women with metastatic breast cancer.
SEARCH METHODS: For this review update, we searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov on 28 May 2015. We identified further potentially relevant studies from handsearching references of previous trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Prior to this review update, the most recent search for studies was conducted in May 2003 for the original 2004 review.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing platinum in women with metastatic breast cancer.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two independent reviewers assessed studies for eligibility and quality, and extracted all relevant data from each study. Hazard ratios (HRs) were derived for time-to-event outcomes, where possible, and fixed-effect models were used for meta-analyses. Objective tumour response rates (OTRRs) and toxicities were analysed as binary (dichotomous) outcomes with risk ratios (RRs) used as measures of effects. Quality of life data were extracted where available. GRADE was used to rate the quality of evidence for survival and tumour response outcomes at the level of subgroups selected and unselected for mTNBC, and for toxicity outcomes based on combining data from selected and unselected populations.
MAIN RESULTS: This update includes 15 new eligible treatment-comparisons from 12 studies. In total, 28 treatment-comparisons, involving 4418 women, from 24 studies are now included in one or more meta-analyses. Of the 28 treatment-comparisons, 19 and 16 had published or provided extractable time-to-event data on overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival/time to progression (PFS/TTP), respectively. All 28 treatment-comparisons provided OTRR data that could be included in meta-analyses. Most women recruited to the studies were not selected on the basis of mTNBC status.In a subgroup of three treatment-comparisons assessing women with mTNBC, platinum-containing regimens may have provided a survival benefit (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.00; low-quality evidence). In women unselected for intrinsic subtypes such as mTNBC, there was little or no effect on survival (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.12; high-quality evidence). This effect was similar to the combined analysis of survival data for both populations (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.07; I(2) =39%, 1868 deaths, 2922 women; 19 trials). The difference in treatment effects between mTNBC women compared with unselected women was of borderline statistical significance (P = 0.05).Data from three treatment-comparisons with mTNBC participants showed that platinum regimens may improve PFS/TTP (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.72; low-quality evidence). Thirteen treatment-comparisons of unselected metastatic participants showed that there was probably a small PFS/TTP benefit for platinum recipients, although the confidence interval included no difference (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.01; moderate-quality evidence). Combined analysis of data from an estimated 1772 women who progressed or died out of 2136 women selected or unselected for mTNBC indicated that platinum-containing regimens improved PFS/TTP (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.93). There was marked evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.0004; I(2) = 63%). The larger treatment benefit in mTNBC women compared with unselected women was statistically significant (P < 0.0001).There was low-quality evidence of better tumour response in both subgroups of women with mTNBC and unselected women (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.56; RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.19, respectively). Combined analysis of both populations was closer to the effect in unselected women (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.22; 4130 women). There was considerable evidence of heterogeneity (P < 0.0001; I(2) = 64%), which may reflect between-study differences and general difficulties in assessing response, as well as the varying potencies of the comparators.Compared with women receiving non-platinum regimens: rates of grade 3 and 4 nausea/vomiting were probably higher among women receiving cisplatin- (RR 2.65, 95% CI 2.10 to 3.34; 1731 women; moderate-quality evidence) but the effect from carboplatin-containing regimens was less certain (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.26; 1441 women; moderate-quality evidence); rates of grade 3 and 4 anaemia were higher among women receiving cisplatin- (RR 3.72, 95% CI 2.36 to 5.88; 1644 women; high-quality evidence) and carboplatin-containing regimens (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.70; 1441 women; high-quality evidence); rates of grade 3 and 4 hair loss (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.58; 1452 women; high-quality evidence) and leukopenia (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57; 3176 women; moderate-quality evidence) were higher among women receiving platinum-containing regimens (regardless of platinum agent).
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In women with metastatic breast cancer who do not have triple-negative disease, there is high-quality evidence of little or no survival benefit and excess toxicity from platinum-based regimens. There is preliminary low-quality evidence of a moderate survival benefit from platinum-based regimens for women with mTNBC. Further randomised trials of platinum-based regimens in this subpopulation of women with metastatic breast cancer are required.
Oncology (7), Blood Disorders and Hematology (1), Men's Health (1) Breast Neoplasms (9), Leukopenia (2), Alopecia (1), more mentions
Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is a rare inflammatory disease that predominantly affects elderly people, with a chronic course and long-term management.(1) Sterile pustules, superficial erosions and crusted lesions on atrophic skin, resulting in cicatricial alopecia, characterize the typical clinical presentation. (1-3) Triggering factors include several drugs, actinic damage, local trauma, surgery, and physical or chemical procedures for actinic keratosis.(4-6) To the best of our knowledge, no previous association with Kindler syndrome was found in the literature.
Senior Health (1) Skin Diseases (2), Alopecia (1), Actinic Keratosis (1), more mentions
PURPOSE: Gonadotroph adenomas are pituitary adenomas with inefficient and variable secretory characteristics, that is why they are usually considered as a subgroup of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) and are recognized only at immunohistochemistry. When gonadotroph adenomas secrete active hormones, they may cause spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in premenopausal women. Aim of our study is to describe three women with OHSS diagnosed before the removal of the adenoma and to calculate the prevalence of OHSS in premenopausal women with a clinical diagnosis of NFPA.
METHODS: We reviewed clinical records of premenopausal women that underwent neurosurgery for NFPA at our centre between 1993 and 2014. OHSS was diagnosed in patients with high levels of FSH, suppressed LH, hyperestrogenism, abdominal symptoms, polymenorrhea, enlarged ovaries with cysts or previous surgery for ovarian cysts.
RESULTS: 171 women were included into the study; 62 (36.6%) had a gonadotroph adenoma diagnosed at immunohistochemistry. Two patients were retrospectively diagnosed as having OHSS due to gonadotroph adenoma and three had OHSS diagnosed before neurosurgery. The prevalence of OHSS was 2.9% in the overall group of patients with NFPA and 8.1% among patients with a gonadotroph adenoma detected at immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of OHSS due to a gonadotroph adenoma is not negligible. Increased awareness of the characteristic clinical and hormonal picture should permit an early detection of this condition in premenopausal women with a pituitary adenoma.
The known pathogenic molecules involved in ichthyosis syndromes with prominent hair abnormalities include SPINK5, ERCC2, ERCC3, GTF2H5, MPLKIP, ST14, CLDN1 and MBTPS2... In this paper, we have presented a review of ichthyosis syndrome with prominent hair abnormalities, with special emphasis on their updated genetic consequences and disease management. Additionally, we aim to update health professionals about the practice of molecular ...
Ichthyosis (9), Hypotrichosis (2), Sclerosing Cholangitis (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: FFA is a cicatricial alopecia that affects the frontotemporal hairline, eyebrows, and body hair. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique useful in understanding skin architecture and vascularization.
OBJECTIVE: To describe structural and vascular findings in FFA using OCT.
METHODS: This was a case-control study conducted from the months of December 2016-February 2017. The study was IRB approved and conducted at the University of Miami Hospital outpatient dermatology hair and nail clinic in Miami, FL. Four patients with biopsy proven FFA, and three healthy age and sex-matched controls participated. OCT scans were taken on cicatricial alopecic band, inflammatory hairline, eyebrow, uninvolved scalp, facial papules, glabellar red dots, and arm. The same body regions were evaluated in controls.
RESULTS: Patients and controls were women aged 42-66. Results reveal epidermal thickness is increased in the inflammatory hairline (0.13 mm) and decreased in the alopecic band (0.08 mm) compared to controls (0.10 mm). Attenuation coefficient is increased the inflammatory hairline, and decreased in the alopecic band compared to controls. Vascular flow in the alopecic band is decreased compared to inflammatory scalp and controls in the superficial levels, but increased at deeper levels as compared to controls. Inflammatory tissue is consistently more vascular at all levels (p< 0.01). Vascular flows in each stage are significantly different than one another (p< 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased vascular flow of the deep plexus in cicatricial stages can be a consequence of superficial tissue ischemia or fibrosis. It is difficult to establish if the increased flow in the inflammatory stage is due to neovascularization as seen in other ischemic diseases, or is the result of the inflammatory response. OCT may be a useful non-invasive tool in imaging FFA. Not only can the technology assist in monitoring disease activity in a non-invasive manner, but it may elucidate new pathophysiologic findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Dermatology (1) Alopecia (5), Fibrosis (1), Ischemia (1), more mentions
PURPOSE: Eyebrow and eyelash loss (madarosis) is a common and distressing side effect of chemotherapy for which no protective strategies have yet been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop an overview of perceptions and experiences of women undergoing taxane-based treatment for early breast cancer.
METHODS: A total of 25 women with a diagnosis of invasive early breast cancer participated in a focus group (n = 5), ages ranging from 35 to 64 (median 50), all had completed therapy with a taxane-based chemotherapy treatment. This focus group used targeted questions to explore participants' perceptions and experience of madarosis during and following chemotherapy and identified issues associated with impact of madarosis on quality of life (QoL). Thematic analysis was conducted to identify important issues experienced by participants.
RESULTS: Seven themes emerged from the data: (1) timing of regrowth and permanent changes, (2) meaning/importance of eyebrow/eyelashes, (3) preparedness/information given, (4) impact of the hair loss of self, (5) impact of hair loss on others, (6) physiological side effects of loss of eyebrows/eyelashes, and (7) management of loss of eyebrows/eyelashes. In addition, participants noted physical symptoms of eye irritation during their treatment that they attributed to madarosis.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the significant impact of madarosis on patients, providing the first published analysis of patient's attitude and perception of eyelash and eyebrow loss during chemotherapy. Further research in this area is required and will be benefitted from the development of a dedicated instrument/questionnaire that can capture and measure the impact of madarosis on QoL and allow development of clinical trial strategies.
Oncology (4), Men's Health (3) Breast Neoplasms (4), Alopecia (1), more mentions
Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.
Men's Health (4) Alopecia (6), Alopecia Areata (1), more mentions
Previous studies have proposed the association between pemphigus and several autoimmune diseases, but no large-scale study has been reported. To delineate the association between pemphigus and autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. A total of 1,998 patients with pemphigus and 7,992 control subjects were enrolled from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 1997 to 2010. The odds of comorbidities between these two groups were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Compared with control subjects, patients with pemphigus were much more likely to have Sjögren's syndrome (odds ratio [OR]: 15.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.16-71.5), psoriasis (OR: 7.18; 95% CI: 5.55-9.29), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR: 4.46; 95% CI: 1.88-10.6), and alopecia areata (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.26-5.67). According to gender-stratified analyses, however, the association between pemphigus and Sjögren's syndrome or alopecia areata was found to be significant only in the female patients. We confirm the association between pemphigus and some autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and alopecia areata. In addition, we present the novel finding that patients with pemphigus have an increased risk of psoriasis.
Immune System Diseases (7), Dermatology (4) Pemphigus (9), Alopecia Areata (4), Autoimmune Diseases (4), more mentions
PURPOSE: This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the effect on PSA concentrations of low-dose finasteride or dutasteride treatment for male androgenetic alopecia whose baseline serum PSA < 2.5 ng/mL.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cohort consisted of 1,379 consecutive male patients who were treated for androgenetic alopecia with finateride 1.25 mg daily or dutasteride 0.5 mg every 3 days in 2002-2012 and underwent PSA measurements at baseline and at least once thereafter. Patients whose baseline or follow-up PSA level after prescription exceeded 2.5 ng/ml were excluded to rule out men with higher likelihood of prostate cancer. Patients were stratified according to age, baseline PSA concentration, medication type, and treatment duration.
RESULTS: Overall, the low-dose 5aRI treatment reduced PSA levels by 27.8% relative to baseline values. Most patients (n=1,094, 79.3%) showed PSA declines (average=40.8%). The remaining 285 (20.7%) patients showed stable or increased PSA levels (average=24.2% increase). Closer analysis showed that, largely, only patients with baseline PSA levels of ≥0.5 ng/ml exhibited treatment-related PSA declines. On multivariate logistic analysis, low baseline PSA levels was associated significantly with stable/increased PSA levels. Low-dose dutasteride and finasteride reduced PSA levels to similar degrees (31.1% vs. 25.1%). Marked PSA declines (26.0%) were observed even after short-term (3-6 month) treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Dutasteride and finasteride reduced PSA levels to similar degrees. This effect was observed soon after commencing treatment. In patients with low baseline PSA levels, PSA levels can remain stable or even increase. These findings are limited to men with baseline PSA < 2.5 ng/mL.
Oncology (1) Alopecia (4), Prostatic Neoplasms (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a lichen planopilaris-variant scarring alopecia that has rarely been described in men.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinicopathologic findings of FFA in men by studying a series of 7 male patients.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of male patients with FFA at the Mayo Clinic from 1992 to 2016.
RESULTS: Seven male patients with FFA were identified. The frontal scalp (in 6 of 7 patients), sideburns (in 4 of 7), and temporal scalp (in 4 of 7) were most frequently involved. Three patients had involvement of the eyebrows. One patient had hair loss of the upper cutaneous lip. All patients had biopsy evidence of lichen planopilaris. None of the patients had associated autoimmune or thyroid disease. Two patients had hypogonadism upon testosterone studies.
LIMITATIONS: Limitations include small sample size and varied follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Although most often reported among postmenopausal women, FFA also occurs among men. The clinical and histopathologic characteristics of FFA in men parallel those described in women with FFA. Unique areas of involvement in men include sideburns and facial hair. Concomitant mucocutaneous lichen planus, autoimmune disease, and thyroid disease are infrequent among men with FFA. Distribution of hair loss and associated hormonal abnormalities aid in the recognition of FFA in men.
Men's Health (3), Immune System Diseases (2) Alopecia (6), Thyroid Diseases (2), Autoimmune Diseases (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: In alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), the chance of full hair regrowth is known to be less than 10%. However, this information is based on a few older studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the current long-term prognosis of individuals with AT/AU.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed in patients with AT/AU between 1994 and 2005. Outcome data were collected by reviewing outpatient clinical files or by phone interviews. Finally, the long-term assessment of 70 patients with valid outcome data was performed.
RESULTS: Twelve out of 70 patients with AT/AU (17.1%) had complete hair regrowth. Five out of 24 patients with AT (20.8%) showed complete hair regrowth, and 7 of 46 patients with AU (15.2%) achieved complete regrowth. Seventeen out of 70 patients with AT/AU (24.2%) reported hair regrowth greater than or equal to 90%. Thirty patients with AU (65.2%) remained in an alopecic state without improvement, while 5 patients with AT (20.8%) showed no hair regrowth.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the long-term prognosis of AT/AU is more favorable than previously thought. However, the clinical burden of AT/AU is still substantial.
The human body is inhabited by complex microbial communities, which positively impact different aspects of our health, and might also be related to the development of diseases. Progress in technologies, particularly sequencing methods and bioinformatics tools, has been crucial for the advances in this field. Microbial communities from skin can modulate immune response and protect the host against pathogens, and there are also data supporting their association with several skin conditions; including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. For decades, they have been thought to be related to Malassezia yeasts; however, the microbial role has not been elucidated, and their etiology remains poorly understood. This review discusses the recent findings in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis and their relation to the skin microbiota. Data provided new perceptions to aid in the understanding of these skin disorders, broadening our view of their etiology and the possible roles of microbial communities in symptom development.
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a distressing side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this registry study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of scalp hypothermia using Penguin Cold Caps (Penguin) in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: Hair loss was assessed by patients using a 100-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and by physicians using the 5-point Dean Scale at baseline, every 3-4 weeks during chemotherapy, and at least 1 month after completion of chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint for success was defined as ≤50% hair loss by patient report (VAS) at follow-up (FUP). Tolerability and satisfaction were assessed by patient report.
RESULTS: 103 patients enrolled between 7/2010 and 6/2015; 97 are evaluable for the primary endpoint. Chemotherapy included docetaxel/cyclophosphamide (TC; n = 50) for 4-6 cycles every 3 weeks, weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks then doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (P/AC; n = 23) for 4 cycles every 2-3 weeks, AC then paclitaxel (AC/P; n = 10), docetaxel/carboplatin ± trastuzumab (TCH; n = 4) for 4-6 cycles every 3 weeks. Overall, 61% of patients successfully prevented CIA; impact was regimen specific: TCH 100%, TC × 4 84%, TC × 5-6 50%, P/AC 43%, AC/P 20%. The most common toxicity was headache, reported by 78.5% of patients with mean pain level 37/100. Satisfaction among those who completed scalp cooling (SC) and FUP ranged from 74 to 100%. All patients who completed SC/FUP recommended Penguin.
CONCLUSIONS: Scalp hypothermia with Penguin is effective in reducing alopecia, particularly for non-anthracycline-based shorter regimens. Penguin was well tolerated and viewed favorably by most patients.
Oncology (3), Men's Health (3) Alopecia (2), Breast Neoplasms (2), Headache (1), more mentions
Ichthyosis-hypotrichosis-sclerosing-cholangitis (IHSC is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome of ichthyosis, scalp hypotrichosis, and sclerosing cholangitis (MIM 607626).[1, 2] Oligodontia, hypodontia and dysplastic enamel have been described as well, as have intracytoplasmic vacuoles in eosinophils, mild psychomotor delay and bilateral anterior uveal synechiae. IHSC is caused ...
Hypotrichosis (3), Ichthyosis (3), Cholangitis (2), more mentions