High viral load is an independent risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Antiviral therapy can reduce but not eliminate the risk of HCC. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for HCC development in CHB patients during antiviral therapy.CHB patients with HBV DNA level ≥10 copies/mL, with or without compensated cirrhosis receiving adefovir were followed up every 6 months for 10 years (2004-2014). The primary endpoint was the development of HCC. The cumulative incidence and risk factors of HCC were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.At baseline, 28 of the 120 patients (23.3%) were cirrhotic. One patient developed HCC within 1 year, and therefore 119 patients were analyzed. At the end-point of follow-up, 59.7% (71/119) patients achieved virological remission (VR). Overall, 16 patients developed HCC, giving a 10-year cumulative incidence of 15.73%. Multivariate analysis showed that cirrhosis at baseline and failure to achieve VR were significant risk factors for HCC. The 10-year incidence of HCC was significantly higher in cirrhotic than noncirrhotic patients (43.16% vs. 7.05%, P < .0001). For cirrhotic patients, the 10-year incidence of HCC was significantly higher in patients without VR than those with VR (62.24% vs. 27.78%, P = .0139).Cirrhosis at baseline and failure to achieve VR during antiviral therapy were significant risk factors for HCC development in CHB patients. Effective viral suppression is necessary to reduce HCC development in cirrhotic CHB patients.
Infectious Diseases (4), Immune System Diseases (4) Cirrhosis (3), Hepatocellular Carcinoma (2), Hepatitis B (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver steatosis has shown to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the presence and severity of CAD and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) assessed by transient elastography (TE) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP).
METHODS: 576 Patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in this prospective study, receiving at least 10 TE and CAP measurements using the FibroScan® M-probe. Clinically relevant CAD (CAD 3) was defined as stenosis with ≥75% reduction of the luminal diameter. NAFLD was determined by CAP ≥234 dB/m. NAFLD with advanced fibrosiswas determined by TE-values ≥7.9kPa in the presence of NAFLD and absence of congestive or right-sided heart failure. Rates and 95% confidence intervals are shown.
RESULTS: 505 patients were available for analysis of NAFLD. However, only 392 patients were available for analysis of NAFLD with advanced fibrosis, since 24 patients had to be excluded due to non valid TE-measurements and 89 patients due to congestive or right-sided heart failure or suspected concomitant liver disease, respectively. 70.5% (66.3%-74.4%) of patients had CAD 3, 71.5% (67.3%-75.4%) were diagnosed with NAFLD, and 11.2% (8.3%-14.8%) with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Patients with CAD 3 had higher median CAP-values (273±61 vs. 260±66 dB/m; p = 0.038) and higher degrees of steatosis as compared to patients without CAD 3. While NAFLD was significantly more often diagnosed in patients with CAD 3 (75.0% vs. 63.1%, p = 0.0068), no significant difference was found for NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (10.7% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.60).
CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant CAD is frequently associated with the presence of NAFLD, but not NAFLD with advanced fibrosis.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long-term follow-up studies validating the clinical benefit of sustained virological response (SVR) in people with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection are lacking. Our aim was to identify rates and predictors of liver fibrosis progression in a large, well characterized cohort of CHC patients in whom paired liver fibrosis assessments were performed more than 10 years apart.
METHODS: CHC patients who had undergone a baseline liver biopsy pre-2004 and a follow up liver fibrosis assessment more than 10 years later (biopsy or liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using transient elastography [FibroScan]) were identified. Subjects who had undergone a baseline liver biopsy but had no follow up fibrosis assessment were recalled for LSM. Fibrosis was categorised as mild-moderate (METAVIR F0-2 / LSM result of ≤ 9.5 kPa) or advanced (METAVIR F3-4/ LSM >9.5 kPa). The primary objective was to assess the association between SVR and the rate of liver fibrosis progression over at least 10 years, defined as an increase from mild-moderate fibrosis at baseline liver biopsy (METAVIR F0-2) to advanced fibrosis at follow-up liver fibrosis assessment.
RESULTS: 131 subjects were included in this analysis: 69% male, 82% Caucasian, 60% G1 HCV, 25% G3 HCV. The median age at F/U fibrosis staging was 57 (IQR 54-62) years with median estimated duration of infection 33-years (IQR 29-38). At F/U, liver fibrosis assessment was performed by LSM in 86% and liver biopsy in 14%. The median period between fibrosis assessments was 14-years (IQR 12-17). 109 (83%) participants had received interferon-based antiviral therapy. 40% attained SVR. At F/U, there was a significant increase in the proportion of subjects with advanced liver fibrosis: 27% at baseline vs. 46% at F/U (p = 0.002). The prevalence of advanced fibrosis did not change among subjects who attained SVR, 30% at B/L vs 25% at F/U (p = 0.343). However, advanced fibrosis became more common at F/U among subjects with persistent viremia: 10% at B/L vs 31% at F/U (p = 0.0001). SVR was independently associated with protection from liver fibrosis progression after adjustment for other variables including baseline ALT (p = 0.011), duration of HCV infection and mode of acquisition.
CONCLUSION: HCV eradication is associated with lower rates of liver fibrosis progression. The data support early treatment to prevent long-term liver complications of HCV infection.
Infectious Diseases (3), Immune System Diseases (1) Fibrosis (9), Liver Fibrosis (9), Infections (5), more mentions
RATIONALE: Tumor chemotherapy could weaken the immune system of patients, which might enhance the body sensitivities to the exogenous pathogens, among which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection should be concerned because of the higher chances of infection and the severe outcomes, especially in East Asia. The titer level of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) higher than 10 IU/L is considered to offer immunocompetent individuals adequate protection. However, whether this level is enough to the tumor patients during chemotherapy remains unclear.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old female lymphoma patient was admitted to our hospital for asthenia, nausea, vomiting, and abnormal liver function lasting over 1 week and diagnosed as acute hepatitis B. The patient just finished a course of chemotherapy with CHOP regimen and had recent record (78.61 IU/L) of HBsAb positive. The only risk of infection we could found was that the patient had received blood transfusion shortly after chemotherapy from a donor who was recovering from an asymptomatic acute HBV infection.
INTERVENTION: The patient was administered with entecavir and glycyrrhizic acid agent, and then the disease was resolved successfully with hepatitis B surface antigen serological conversion.
LESSONS: Tumor chemotherapy might have weakened the immune system of the patient and enhanced the body sensitivities to hepatitis B virus, then led to the infection. We concluded that HBsAb-positive status, at least "weakly positive," might not enough to provide protection for tumor patients on chemotherapy though this level was enough for health individuals and donors recuperating from subclinical acute hepatitis B might be another potential risk of HBV infection.
Infectious Diseases (11), Immune System Diseases (1) Hepatitis B (11), Infections (7), Neoplasms (4), more mentions
The relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgery remains uncertain. A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the impact of pre-S deletions, T1762/A1764, and A1896 mutations on prognosis of HCC after curative resection. A total of 113 patients with positive serum HBV DNA (>200 IU/mL) who had underwent curative resection of pathologically proven HCC were recruited to determine the risk factors affecting the prognosis.The median follow-up time was 36.5 months and recurrence was detected in 67 patients (59.3%). The cumulative recurrence rates and overall survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year after curative resection were 18.0%, 49.7%, 70.3%, and 93.7%, 61.0%, 42.5%, respectively. Patients with pre-S deletions showed significantly higher recurrence rates compared with those with wild type infection (HR: 1.822, P = .018), but not related with a significantly poor survival (HR: 1.388, P = .235). Subgroup analysis indicated that the patients with type III deletion had significant higher tumor recurrence rates than other deletion types (HR: 2.211, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.008-4.846, P = .048). Multivariate analysis revealed that pre-S deletion, tumor size >3 cm in diameter, and the presence of microvascular invasion were independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. HBV pre-S deletions were found to be clustered primarily in the 5' end of pre-S2 region and were more often found between amino acids 120 and 142 of the pre-S2 domain. The domains most frequently potentially involved were the transactivator domain in pre-S2 and polymerized human serum albumin binding site.Our cohort showed that pre-S deletions at the time of resection could predict tumor recurrence in HCC patients after curative resection.
Infectious Diseases (4), Oncology (1) Neoplasms (5), Hepatitis B (4), Hepatocellular Carcinoma (2), more mentions
RATIONALE: Staged hepatectomy is an important surgical method for large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the insufficient future liver remnant (FLR) is still the major barrier in stage II hepatectomy. We herein reported a case of laparoscopic associating liver tourniquet and portal ligation combined rescue transhepatic arterial embolization (TAE) for staged hepatectomy.
PATIENT CONCERNS: Laparoscopic associating liver tourniquet and portal ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALTPS) was performed for cirrhotic HCC in stage I. To stimulate the growth of FLR, a "rescue" TAE was initiated before stage II.
DIAGNOSE: HCC with hepatitis B cirrhosis.
OUTCOMES: Two weeks later after TAE, the FLR achieved sufficient hypertrophy and stage II surgery was successfully performed. The patient was discharged 7 days after the second stage without serious complication. During the follow-up at postoperative 6 months, the patient underwent radiofrequency ablation, because contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed 1 cm tumor recurrence in the remnant liver.
LESSONS: Rescue TAE plays an important role to stimulate the increasing of FLR after ALTPS.
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation or precursor of metabolic syndrome, may increase nephrolithiasis, a renal manifestation of insulin resistance, but the prospective association between NAFLD and incident nephrolithiasis has not been evaluated. We examined the association of NAFLD with the development of nephrolithiasis in a large cohort of Korean men and women.
METHODS: We performed a cohort study of 208,578 Korean adults who underwent a health checkup examination between January 2002 and December 2014 and were followed-up annually or biennially through December 2014. NAFLD was defined as the presence of fatty liver in the absence of excessive alcohol use or other identifiable causes. Fatty liver and nephrolithiasis were determined based on ultrasonographic findings. We used a parametric Cox model to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of nephrolithiasis according to the presence of NAFLD.
RESULTS: During 1,054,887.6 person-year of follow-up, 16,442 participants developed nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for age, center, year of screening exam, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, education level, body mass index, history of hypertension and diabetes, HOMA-IR, uric acid and C-reactive protein, male participants with NAFLD had a significantly increased risk of nephrolithiasis than those without NAFLD (adjusted HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.30). However, no association between NAFLD and nephrolithiasis was observed in women (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81-1.16).
CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study of young and middle-aged Koreans, NAFLD was significantly associated with an increased incidence of nephrolithiasis in men but not in women.
Endocrine Disorders (2), Cardiovascular Diseases (1), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1) Nephrolithiasis (11), Alcoholic Fatty Liver (3), Fatty Liver (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Both iron and lipid metabolism seem to be involved in its pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the relationship between levels of hepcidin, the master iron-regulatory protein, in plasma and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese (MO) patients, and to investigate the association between the hepatic expression of the main iron and lipid metabolism -related genes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure plasma hepcidin levels in 49 normal-weight control women, 23 MO women with normal liver (NL) histology and 46 MO women with NAFLD. The mRNA expression of hepcidin, the main iron metabolism-related genes, and the main lipid-metabolism genes was quantified by qRT-PCR in liver biopsies from members of the MO group undergoing bariatric surgery.
RESULTS: Circulating hepcidin levels were significantly greater in MO than in normal-weight control women. However, there were no significant differences between MO women with NL and those with NAFLD. PCR analysis showed increased expression of hepcidin, FPN1, TfR1 and TfR2 in the liver of MO NAFLD women compared to those with NL. Moreover, a positive association of hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression and the iron metabolism-related genes was found with some key genes involved in the lipid metabolism.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that circulating hepcidin levels are associated with obesity but not with the presence of NAFLD. However, the hepatic expression of hepcidin and the iron metabolism-related genes seem to play a role in regulating lipid metabolism pathways in liver, which has implications for NAFLD pathogenesis.
Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (5) Alcoholic Fatty Liver (3), Obesity (2), Liver Diseases (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a common syndrome in chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis. The association between sarcopenia and outcomes, such as complications and survival has recently been described in various patient groups. However, study results remain inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with cirrhosis.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) on the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in liver cirrhosis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Of the 312 studies identified, 20 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies used CT to diagnose sarcopenia. Two studies used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), 10 studies used skeletal muscle index (SMI) and 8 studies used total psoas muscle area (TPA). Seven studies included Asian participants and the remaining 13 studies included Western participants. The prevalence rate of sarcopenia among participants was mean 48.1%, and appeared more among men with a rate of 61.6% whereas the rate was 36% for women. With respect to clinical outcomes, patients with sarcopenia had poorer survival rates and an increased risk of complications such as infection compared to those without sarcopenia. According to the analysis of race subgroup, Asians had a HR 2.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44-4.16, P = 0.001) of mortality whereas Westerners had a HR 1.45 (95% CI = 1.002-2.09, P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Based on this SR and MA, the presence of sarcopenia is related to a poor prognosis and occurrence of cirrhotic complications and could be used for risk assessment. Moreover, Asian participants had higher mortality related to sarcopenia compared to the Western participants.
Sarcopenia (12), Liver Cirrhosis (4), Cirrhosis (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population.
METHODS: Seroprevalence data were collected from health promotion center of Korea University Guro Hospital, in Seoul, Korea from 2010 to 2014. Data from adults (≥20-years) being tested for anti-HAV IgG were included. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2009 to 2013, were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS) and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. Data were stratified and compared by age groups.
RESULTS: A total of 11,177 subjects were tested for anti-HAV IgG from 2010 to 2014. Age-related seroprevalence showed relatively low seropositivity in young adults. Incidence of acute hepatitis A was highest in 2009 and lowest in 2013. When categorized by age group, adults in their 20s and 30s had more HAV infections and related-admissions than older adults. However, ICU admission rate and average insurance-covered cost was high in older adults.
CONCLUSION: The anti-HAV IgG seropositivity in Korean younger adult population was low while the incidence of acute hepatitis A was high, especially in the 20-39 aged. However, a substantial number of older adults were infected, and required more intensive procedures and incurred higher insurance-covered medical costs.
Infectious Diseases (7) Hepatitis A (7), Infections (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) have a high risk of death within 90 days. Corticosteroids, which can cause severe adverse events, are the only treatment that increases short-term survival. It is a challenge to predict outcomes of patients with severe AH. Therefore, we developed a scoring system to predict patient survival, integrating baseline molecular and clinical variables.
METHODS: We obtained fixed liver biopsy samples from 71 consecutive patients diagnosed with severe AH and treated with corticosteroids from July 2006 through December 2013 in Brussels, Belgium (derivation cohort). Gene expression patterns were analyzed by microarrays and clinical data were collected for 180 days. We identified gene expression signatures and clinical data that associated with survival without liver transplantation at 90 and 180 days after initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Findings were validated using liver biopsies from 48 consecutive patients with severe AH treated with corticosteroids, collected from March 2010 through February 2015 at hospitals in Belgium and Switzerland (validation cohort 1) and in liver biopsies from 20 patients (9 received corticosteroid treatment), collected from January 2012 through May 2015 in the United States (validation cohort 2).
RESULTS: We integrated data on expression patterns of 123 genes and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores to assign patients to groups with poor survival (29% survived 90 days and 26% survived 180 days) and good survival (76% survived 90 days and 65% survived 180 days) (P<.001) in the derivation cohort. We named this assignment system the gene signature-MELD (gs-MELD) score. In the validation cohort 1, the gs-MELD score discriminated patients with a poor survival (43% survived 90 days) from those with a good survival (96% survived 90 days) (P<.001). The gs-MELD score also discriminated between patients with a poor survival at 180 days (34% survived) and a good survival at 180 days (84% survived) (P<.001). The time-dependent area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for the score was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-0.99) for survival at 90 days, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71-0.96) for survival at 180 days. This score outperformed other clinical models to predict survival of patients with severe AH in validation cohort 1. In validation cohort 2, the gs-MELD discriminated patients with a poor survival at 90 days (12% survived) from those with a poor survival at 90 days (100%) (P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: We integrated data on baseline liver gene expression pattern and MELD score to create the gs-MELD scoring system, which identifies patients with severe AH, treated or not with corticosteroids, the gs-MELD score, most and least likely to survive for 90 and 180 days.
Hepatitis C clearance with directly acting antivirals (DAAs) may be associated with acute decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We prospectively evaluated 251 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects (31% human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive) pre- and post-DAA therapy (median follow-up 28 months). Changes in HbA1c and glucose were minimal and did not differ by sustained virologic response (SVR), HIV, diabetes, or fibrosis. Following SVR, mean change in HbA1c was -0.022 ± 0.53%; however, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. Subjects with HIV had smaller transaminase reductions after SVR. Sustained benefits in glycemia were not identified following HCV clearance irrespective of HIV, diabetes, or fibrosis stage, whereas lipid alterations may warrant further investigation.
Infectious Diseases (4), Endocrine Disorders (3), Immune System Diseases (2) Hepatitis C (3), Diabetes Mellitus (3), Fibrosis (2), more mentions
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation becomes a challenging issue with increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and cytotoxic chemotherapy for varied medical conditions, including cancer. The spectrum of HBV reactivation in the setting of immunosuppression may vary from asymptomatic reactivation to liver failure leading to death. HBV reactivation can hamper the course of planned therapies and diminish the effects of therapies; thus, it adversely affects the prognosis of the original disease and the survival of the patients. There is mounting evidence that HBV reactivation can be prevented and managed if patients are screened to determine their risk for HBV reactivation and are treated prophylactically before therapy with immunosuppressive agents or cytotoxic chemotherapy is initiated. In this article, we review the diagnostic criteria and clinical outcomes of HBV reactivation, discuss how immunosuppressive therapy may influence the risk of HBV reactivation, and outline strategies to prevent HBV reactivation.
Infectious Diseases (3), Oncology (1) Hepatitis B (3), Liver Failure (1), Neoplasms (1), more mentions
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses. The virus is stealthy, since the infection rarely induces type I interferon response in the early phase. In AHB, viral infection is detected and restrained by the innate immune response, which is followed by a strong and robust adaptive immune response and accompanied by viral clearance. In patients with CHB, both innate and adaptive immune responses are weak and thus rarely lead to viral clearance. Interferon α and nucleos(t)ide analogues are 2 classes of approved antiviral therapies. The former treatment activates nature killer (NK) cells and NK T cells, which partially enhances the innate immune response, while the later treatment suppresses viral replication by inhibiting reverse transcriptase, which may restore the HBV-specific adaptive immune response. However, single or combined treatment are still far from achieving seroclearance of HBV surface antigen. Although the treatment response is unsatisfactory in current clinical trials using several immunomodulators for boosting antiviral immunity, immunotherapy that is able to induce immune surveillance is still the most promising modality for HBV cure in the future.
Infectious Diseases (6), Immune System Diseases (2) Infections (4), Hepatitis B (3), Chronic Hepatitis B (3), more mentions
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exhibits a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from spontaneous resolution of hepatitis B to severe adverse consequences, including the development of cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The heterogeneous clinical courses of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reflect the complex host-virus interactions, and point to the difficulty and necessity of identifying the patients at risk. With the advance of HBV virology, several viral factors have been found to be associated with the long-term clinical outcomes of CHB patients. Different viral factors probe different aspects of CHB. Integration of these viral factors may help to determine the disease state of patients more accurately, and identify the patients who require timely antiviral therapy to prevent the development of detrimental clinical outcomes. In this article, we will introduce the conventional and emerging viral factors that are associated with clinical outcomes and discuss their utility in a clinical setting.
Infectious Diseases (6), Immune System Diseases (1) Chronic Hepatitis B (4), Hepatitis B (2), Cirrhosis (1), more mentions
Concern has arisen about development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). To identify patients at risk for HCC, we evaluated serum levels of immune mediators before, during, and after DAA treatment of HCV infection. Our study included 13 patients who developed HCC within 18 months after treatment (3 with HCC recurrence and 10 with new HCC) and 10 patients who did not develop HCC (controls), within at least 24 months of treatment (median, 26 months). We identified a set of 12 immune mediators (cytokines, growth factors, and apoptosis markers) whose levels were significantly higher in serum before DAA treatment of patients who eventually developed de novo HCC compared to controls. A panel of 9 cytokines, measured in serum before treatment (MIG, IL22, TRAIL, APRIL, VEGF, IL3, TWEAK, SCF, IL21), identified patients who developed de novo HCC with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value higher than 0.8. Further analyses of changes in levels of inflammatory cytokines during DAA treatment also provides important information about HCV-induced carcinogenesis and the effects of DAAs.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremic rate, defined as the proportion of HCV chronically infected individuals out of all ever infected individuals, in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).
METHODS: Sources of data were systematically-gathered and standardized databases of the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project. Meta-analyses were conducted using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models to determine pooled HCV viremic rate by risk population or subpopulation, country/subregion, sex, and study sampling method. Random-effects meta-regressions were conducted to identify predictors of higher viremic rate.
RESULTS: Analyses were conducted on 178 measures for HCV viremic rate among 19,593 HCV antibody positive individuals. In the MENA region, the overall pooled mean viremic rate was 67.6% (95% CI: 64.9-70.3%). Across risk populations, the pooled mean rate ranged between 57.4% (95% CI: 49.4-65.2%) in people who inject drugs, and 75.5% (95% CI: 61.0-87.6%) in populations with liver-related conditions. Across countries/subregions, the pooled mean rate ranged between 62.1% (95% CI: 50.0-72.7%) and 70.4% (95% CI: 65.5-75.1%). Similar pooled estimates were further observed by risk subpopulation, sex, and sampling method. None of the hypothesized population-level predictors of higher viremic rate were statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of HCV antibody positive individuals in MENA are chronically infected. Though there is extensive variation in study-specific measures of HCV viremic rate, pooled mean estimates are similar regardless of risk population or subpopulation, country/subregion, HCV antibody prevalence in the background population, or sex. HCV viremic rate is a useful indicator to track the progress in (and coverage of) HCV treatment programs towards the set target of HCV elimination by 2030.
Infectious Diseases (3) Hepatitis C (3), Viremia (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to discuss the imaging modalities and response criteria used for assessing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) response to (90)Y radioembolization, as well as the imaging appearances of treated tumors.
CONCLUSION: An understanding of the appearance of HCC after (90)Y radioembolization is crucial for accurate evaluation of treatment response. Residual tumor necrosis and enhancement are essential for assessing response. Multiparametric MRI, including DWI and perfusion imaging, plays an emerging role in response assessment and outcome prediction.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (3), Necrosis (1), Carcinoma (1), more mentions
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection of hepatocytes is associated with a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) episome. Although serologic hepatitis B surface antigen tests are negative, the presence of cccDNA is obviously increased in HBeAg-positive patients compared with that in HBeAg-negative patients, inactive carriers and patients. Moreover, trace cccDNA levels can also be found in the liver cells of patients with resolved hepatitis B infections. Therefore, clearance of cccDNA in hepatocytes could be an effective cure for HBV. In this review, we summarize the strategies that have been employed to eliminate cccDNA in recent years and discuss the future development of treatments for chronic hepatitis B.
Infectious Diseases (5) Infections (3), Hepatitis B (3), Chronic Hepatitis B (2), more mentions