RATIONALE: Saccharated ferric oxide has been shown to lead to elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23, hypophosphatemia, and, consequently, osteomalacia. Moreover, mineral imbalance is often observed in patients with short-bowel syndrome to some degree.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 62-year-old woman with short-bowel syndrome related with multiple resections of small intestines due to Crohn disease received regular intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide. Over the course of treatment, she was diagnosed with tetany, which was attributed to hypocalcemia. Additional assessments of the patient revealed not only hypocalcemia, but also hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, osteomalacia, and a high concentration of fibroblast growth factor 23 (314 pg/mL).
DIAGNOSES: We diagnosed her with mineral imbalance-induced osteomalacia due to saccharated ferric oxide and short-bowel syndrome.
INTERVENTIONS: Magnesium replacement therapy and discontinuation of saccharated ferric oxide alone.
OUTCOMES: These treatments were able to normalize her serum mineral levels and increase her bone mineral density.
LESSONS: This case suggests that adequate evaluation of serum minerals, including phosphate and magnesium, during saccharated ferric oxide administration may be necessary, especially in patients with short-bowel syndrome.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Osteomalacia (5), Hypocalcemia (3), Hypophosphatemia (3), more mentions
DescriptorName: Adult. DescriptorName: Constipation. DescriptorName: Fecal Incontinence. DescriptorName: Female. DescriptorName: France. DescriptorName: Humans. DescriptorName: IntestinalDiseases. DescriptorName: Male. DescriptorName: Prevalence. DescriptorName: Prospective Studies. DescriptorName: Risk Factors. DescriptorName: Severity of Illness Index. DescriptorName: Spinal Dysraphism. AbstractText: Although care of urological disorders in spina bifida is well established, there is yet no agreement on a standardized approach to bowel dysfunction in this ...
Urology (10), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (2) Spinal Dysraphism (9), Fecal Incontinence (7), Neurogenic Bowel (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: After IPAA, 8% of patients with ulcerative colitis are later diagnosed with Crohn's disease of the pouch, associated with an increased rate of pouch failure. No study has reported on how often the clinical diagnosis is correlated with histologic findings of Crohn's disease in the excised pouch.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical diagnosis is consistent with pathologic confirmation at pouch excision.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a tertiary IBD referral center.
PATIENTS: Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis who underwent pouch excision for presumed Crohn's disease of the pouch were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preoperative evaluation and pathologic variables at the time of pouch excision were measured.
RESULTS: A total of 35 patients underwent pouch excision for Crohn's disease of the pouch based on a combination of clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings. Seven (20%) had surgical pathology consistent with Crohn's disease at pouch excision. There were no differences in those 7 patients and the remaining 28 in terms of diagnosis at colectomy, primary pouch symptoms, prepouch inflammation, ulceration, or granulomas at endoscopy. In the nonpathology-confirmed Crohn's disease, 40% (n = 11) had an anastomotic leak at time of IPAA versus 0% in the Crohn's disease group, and 86% (n = 24) had symptoms of pouch dysfunction within 5 months of ileostomy reversal versus 13 months in the Crohn's disease group. Of 28 without pathology-confirmed Crohn's disease, 100% (n = 28) were treated with antibiotics, 68% (n = 19) with steroids, 59% (n = 16) with immunomodulators, and 57% (n = 15) with biologic therapy for Crohn's disease of the pouch.
LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its single-center scope and lack of an established definition for Crohn's disease of the pouch.
CONCLUSIONS: Pathologic confirmation of Crohn's disease was given to only one fifth of patients who underwent pouch excision for Crohn's disease of the pouch. Given the histologic variability in Crohn's disease, it may be unreasonable to expect histologic confirmation in every case; still, the diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the pouch may be overly ascribed, resulting in unnecessary immunosuppressive medications and exclusion from consideration for pouch reconstructive surgery. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCRA432.
Immune System Diseases (16), Infectious Diseases (1) Ulcerative Colitis (2), Granuloma (1), Anastomotic Leak (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Duodenal polyposis is a manifestation of adenomatous polyposis that predisposes to duodenal or ampullary adenocarcinoma. Duodenal polyposis is monitored by upper GI endoscopies and may require iterative resections and prophylactic radical surgical treatment when malignancy is threatening.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate severity scoring for surveillance and treatment in a large series of duodenal polyposis.
DESIGN: From 1982 to 2014, every patient surveyed by upper GI endoscopies for duodenal polyposis was included.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary care center.
PATIENTS: We performed 1912 upper GI endoscopies in 437 patients (median = 3; interquartile range, 2-6 endoscopies).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Conservative treatment was performed in 103 patients (159 endoscopic and 17 surgical resections), whereas radical surgical treatment (Whipple procedure or duodenectomy) was required in 52 (median age, 47.5 y; range, 43.0-57.3 y) because of high-grade dysplasia or unresectable lesions.
RESULTS: Genes involved were APC (n = 274; 62.7%) and MUTYH (n = 21; 4.8%). First upper GI endoscopies (median age, 32 y; range, 21-44 y) revealed duodenal polyposis in 190 (43.5%). Rates of low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and duodenal or ampulary adenocarcinoma at 5 years were 65% (range, 61.7%-66.9%), 12.1% (range, 10.3%-13.9%), and 2.4% (range, 1.5%-3.3%), whereas 10-year rates were 75.8% (range, 73.1%-78.5%), 20.8% (range, 18.2%-23.4%), and 5.4% (range, 3.8%-7.0%). The rate of ampullary abnormalities rose during surveillance from 18.3% at the first upper GI endoscopies to 47.4% at the fourth. Predictive factors for high-grade dysplasia were age at first upper GI endoscopy, type and age of colorectal surgery, Spigelman score, presence of an ampullary abnormality, and number of endoscopic treatments. In multivariate analysis, only age at first upper GI endoscopy and presence of an ampullary abnormality were independent predictive factors. Histologic analysis after radical surgical treatment showed high-grade dysplasia in 30 patients and duodenal or ampulary adenocarcinoma in 11 (4 patients had lymph node involvement).
LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective analysis of a prospective database.
CONCLUSIONS: More than 20% of patients developed high-grade dysplasia with duodenal polyposis after 10 years. Iterative endoscopic resections allowed extended control, but surgery remained necessary in 12% of the patients and happened too late in many cases; 20% of those operated had developed duodenal or ampulary adenocarcinoma, whereas 8% exhibited malignancy with lymph node involvement. The trigger for prophylactic surgery required a more accurate predictive score leading to closer endoscopic surveillance. Modifying the Spigelman score by accounting for ampullary abnormalities should be considered as a means to increase compliance with closer endoscopic follow-up in high-risk patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A430.
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy is being increasingly performed internationally to treat rectal prolapse syndromes. Robotic assistance appears advantageous for this procedure, but literature regarding robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy is limited.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy in the largest consecutive series of patients to date.
DESIGN: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of prospectively collected data.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center.
PATIENTS: All of the patients undergoing robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy for rectal prolapse syndromes between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preoperative and postoperative (mesh and nonmesh) morbidity and functional outcome were analyzed. The actuarial recurrence rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: A total of 258 patients underwent robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy (mean ± SD follow-up = 23.5 ± 21.8 mo; range, 0.2 - 65.1 mo). There were no conversions and only 5 intraoperative complications (1.9%). Mortality (0.4%) and major (1.9%) and minor (<30 d) early morbidity (7.0%) were acceptably low. Only 1 (1.3%) mesh-related complication (asymptomatic vaginal mesh erosion) was observed. A significant improvement in obstructed defecation (78.6%) and fecal incontinence (63.7%) were achieved for patients (both p < 0.0005). At final follow-up, a new onset of fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation was induced or worsened in 3.9% and 0.4%. The actuarial 5-year external rectal prolapse and internal rectal prolapse recurrence rates were 12.9% and 10.4%.
LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective study including patients with minimal follow-up. No validated scores were used to assess function. The study was monocentric, and there was no control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy is a safe and effective technique to treat rectal prolapse syndromes, providing an acceptable recurrence rate and good symptomatic relief with minimal morbidity. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A427.
Urology (2) Rectal Prolapse (7), Fecal Incontinence (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common extra-intestinal manifestation of celiac disease (CD). Little is known about the frequency with which primary care physicians (PCPs) test for CD in patients with IDA. We aimed to describe how PCPs approach testing for CD in asymptomatic patients with IDA.
METHODS: We electronically distributed a survey to PCPs who are members of the American College of Physicians. Respondents were asked whether they would test for CD (serologic testing, refer for esophagogastroduodenoscopy [EGD], or refer to GI) in hypothetical patients with new IDA, including: (1) a young Caucasian man, (2) a premenopausal Caucasian woman, (3) an elderly Caucasian man, and (4) a young African American man. These scenarios were chosen to assess for differences in testing for CD based on age, gender, and race. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of testing.
RESULTS: Testing for CD varied significantly according to patient characteristics, with young Caucasian men being the most frequently tested (61% of respondents reporting they would perform serologic testing in this subgroup (p<0.001)). Contrary to guideline recommendations, 80% of respondents reported they would definitely or probably start a patient with positive serologies for CD on a gluten free diet prior to confirmatory upper endoscopy.
CONCLUSIONS: PCPs are under-testing for CD in patients with IDA, regardless of age, gender, race, or post-menopausal status. The majority of PCPs surveyed reported they do not strictly adhere to established guidelines regarding a confirmatory duodenal biopsy in a patient with positive serology for CD.
Blood Disorders and Hematology (3) Anemia (3), Celiac Disease (3), more mentions
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease nowadays. Certain cancers are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, there are no data concerning the cancer pattern in patients with DN. The aim of this study is to investigate the site-specific cancer risk and mortality in these patients.A retrospective cohort study of 5643 DN patients between 2000 and 2015 was conducted in 2 large hospitals in Hong Kong. Incidence and mortality of various cancers were compared with those of general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) respectively.With 24,726 person-years follow-up, 250 cancers were diagnosed. Overall cancer incidence was similar between DN patients and the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.19). However, certain site-specific cancers are increased in DN patients: the highest risk was observed for laryngeal cancer (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.11-6.60), followed by cancers of liver (SIR 1.96, 95% CI 1.35-2.76) and colorectum (SIR 1.92, 95% CI 1.53-2.37), but the risk of prostate cancer was lower (SIR 0.48, 95% CI 0.21-0.95) in the males with DN. The SMR of all cancers was 1.17 (95% CI 1.01-1.37). For individual specific site, only colorectal cancer carried a significant higher mortality risk (SMR 2.45, 95% CI 1.82-3.23).Our data suggested that DN is associated with increased incidence of cancers of colorectum, liver, and larynx but decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Moreover, there is increased mortality of colorectal cancer in patients with DN.
There is limited available information on patterns of utilization and efficacy of alternative medicine (AM) for patients with cancer. We identified 281 patients with nonmetastatic breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer who chose AM, administered as sole anticancer treatment among patients who did not receive conventional cancer treatment (CCT), defined as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and/or hormone therapy. Independent covariates on multivariable logistic regression associated with increased likelihood of AM use included breast or lung cancer, higher socioeconomic status, Intermountain West or Pacific location, stage II or III disease, and low comorbidity score. Following 2:1 matching (CCT = 560 patients and AM = 280 patients) on Cox proportional hazards regression, AM use was independently associated with greater risk of death compared with CCT overall (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88 to 3.27) and in subgroups with breast (HR = 5.68, 95% CI = 3.22 to 10.04), lung (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.42 to 3.32), and colorectal cancer (HR = 4.57, 95% CI = 1.66 to 12.61). Although rare, AM utilization for curable cancer without any CCT is associated with greater risk of death.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laterally spreading colorectal tumors (LSTs) are divided into four subtypes, including homogenous (HG), nodular mixed (NM), flat elevated (FE), and pseudo-depressed (PD), based on their different endoscopic morphologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of LST subtypes and their association with advanced histology.
METHODS: We investigated the medical records of consecutive patients with LST who initially underwent endoscopic resection at five university hospitals in Honam province of South Korea between January 2012 and December 2013. A total of 566LST lesions removed via endoscopic procedures were collected retrospectively for data analysis.
RESULTS: The PD, FE, and NM subtypes were more common in the distal colon and the HG subtype in the proximal colon. The PD subtype had the biggest tumor size, followed by the NM subtype. The frequency of adenomatous pit pattern was significantly higher in the HG, NM, and FE subtypes than in the PD subtype. In contrast, the frequency of cancerous pit pattern was significantly higher in the PD subtype than in the other three subtypes. The rate of advanced histology (high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma) among the LSTs was 36.0%. The risk of advanced histology increased in the distal colon compared with the proximal colon. The PD subtype had the highest incidence of villous component, advanced histology,submucosal invasion, and postprocedure perforation among the four subtypes. The distal colon as tumor site, larger tumor size, PD subtype, and villous component were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of advanced histology.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the location, size, endoscopic subtype, and histologic component of the LSTs are associated with an increased risk of advanced histology. Therefore, these clinicopathological parameters may be useful in selecting therapeutic strategies in the clinical setting.
Neoplasms (3), Colorectal Neoplasms (2), Carcinoma (1), more mentions
Genetic and epigenetic alterations mark colorectal cancer (CRC). Global hypomethylation is observed in nearly all CRC, but a distinct subset of CRC show the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP). These tumors show DNA hypermethylation of a specific subset of CpG islands, resulting in transcriptional downregulation of nearby genes. Recently we reported the establishment of novel CRC cell lines derived from primary and metastatic CRC tissues. In this study we describe the DNA methylation profiling of these low passage CRC cell lines. We generated global DNA methylation profiles with Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips and analysed them in conjunction with matching gene expression profiles. Multidimensional scaling of the DNA methylation and gene expression datasets showed that BRAF mutated cell lines form a distinct group. In this group we investigated the 706 loci which we have previously identified to be hypermethylated in BRAF mutant CRC. We validated the significant findings in the The Cancer Genome Atlas colon adenocarcinoma dataset. Our analysis identified ELOVL5, FAM127B, MTERF1, ZNF606 to be subject to transcriptional downregulation through DNA hypermethylation in CRC. We further investigated ELOVL5 with qPCR and immunohistochemical staining, validating our results, but did not find a clear relation between ELOVL5 expression and tumor stage or relapse free survival. ELOVL5, FAM127B, MTERF1, ZNF606 are involved in important cellular processes such as apoptosis, lipogenesis and the downstream transcriptional effect of the MAPK-pathway. We have identified a DNA methylation profile regulating key cellular processes in CRC, resulting in a growth advantage to the tumor cells.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of CT colonography versus optical colonoscopy for neoplastic involvement at the surgical anastomosis 1 year after curative-intent colorectal cancer resection.
DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Two hundred one patients (mean age, 58.6 years; 117 men, 84 women) underwent same-day contrast-enhanced CT colonography and colonoscopy approximately 1 year (mean, 12.1 months; median, 11.9 months) after colorectal cancer resection as part of a prospective, multicenter trial. All patients enrolled were without clinical evidence of disease and considered low risk for recurrence (stage I-III).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suspected neoplastic lesions within 5 cm of the colonic anastomosis were recorded at CT colonography, with subsequent colonoscopy performed for the same, with segmental unblinding of colonography findings. Anastomotic region biopsy or polypectomy was performed at the endoscopist's discretion.
RESULTS: None of the 201 patients had intraluminal anastomotic cancer recurrence or advanced neoplasia (or metachronous cancers). CT colonography detected extramural perianastomotic recurrence in 2 patients (1.0%); neither was detected at colonoscopy. Only 2 patients (1.0%; 2/201) were called positive at CT colonography for intraluminal anastomotic nondiminutive lesions (7- to 8-mm polyps), which were confirmed at colonoscopy but nonneoplastic at histopathology. At optical colonoscopy, the anastomosis was deemed abnormal and/or biopsied in 10.0% (20/201), yielding only 1 nondiminutive benign neoplasm (7-mm tubular adenoma).
LIMITATIONS: The lack of luminal cancer recurrence in our lower-risk cohort precludes assessment of sensitivity for detection, rendering the study underpowered in this regard. Potential cost savings of combined CT/CT colonography over the standard CT/colonoscopy approach were not assessed.
CONCLUSIONS: Relevant intraluminal anastomotic pathology appears to be very uncommon 1 year after colorectal cancer resection in lower-risk cohorts. Unlike colonoscopy, diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT colonography effectively evaluates both the intra- and extraluminal aspects of the anastomosis. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A471.
INTRODUCTION: A needle was retained during transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization. This rare complication has not been described before.
TECHNIQUE: A spinal needle was inserted from the perianal skin to localize the retained foreign body that was located at 7 cm from the anal margin. A decision was made to proceed to intersphincteric dissection, and a 3-cm incision was made in the perianal skin from 2 to 4 o'clock. Deep pararectal dissection continued, and the needle was eventually found lying in the muscular layer, parallel to the plane of the dissection.
RESULTS: The needle was retrieved intact, and repeat x-ray confirmed that no foreign body was retained. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on postoperative day 1 with a 5-day course of oral antibiotics; she was examined in clinic 4 weeks following surgery and reported significant symptomatic improvement with no perianal pain or rectal bleeding. No anal fistula was found on the examination.
CONCLUSIONS: X-ray guidance is a helpful adjunct to facilitate 3-dimensional localization. Intersphincteric dissection is a reliable alternative to the transanal approach, particularly when the needle cannot be seen arising from the mucosa or felt on palpation. Repeated attempts to palpate the needle should be avoided, because there is a potential risk of displacing it deeper or higher, making retrieval more difficult.
Infectious Diseases (1) Anal Fistula (1), Hemorrhoids (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Surgical care fragmentation at readmission impacts short-term outcomes. However, the long-term impact of surgical care fragmentation is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to evaluate the impact of surgical care fragmentation, encompassing both surgeon and hospital care, at readmission after colorectal surgery on 1-year survival.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: The study included patients undergoing colorectal resection in New York State from 2004 to 2014.
PATIENTS: Included were 20,016 patients undergoing colorectal resection who were readmitted within 30 days of discharge and categorized by source-of-care fragmentation. Each readmission was classified by the source of fragmentation: readmission to the index hospital and managed by another provider, readmission to another hospital by the index surgeon, and readmission to another hospital by another provider. Patients readmitted to the index hospital and managed by the index surgeon served as controls.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: One-year overall survival and 1-year colorectal cancer-specific survival were the outcomes measured.
RESULTS: After propensity adjustment, surgeon care fragmentation was independently associated with decreased survival. In comparison with patients without surgical care fragmentation (patients readmitted to the index hospital and managed by the index surgeon), patients readmitted to the index hospital and managed by another provider had over a 2-fold risk (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.10-2.60) and patients readmitted to another hospital by another provider had almost a 2-fold risk (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.63-2.25) of 1-year mortality. Among 9545 patients with a colorectal cancer diagnosis, surgical care fragmentation was once again associated with decreased survival with patients readmitted to the index hospital and managed by another provider having a HR of 2.12 (95% CI, 1.76-2.56) and patients readmitted to another hospital by another provider having a HR of 1.57 (95% CI, 1.17-2.11) compared with patients readmitted to the index hospital and managed by the index surgeon.
LIMITATIONS: Limitations include possible miscoding of data, retrospective design, and selection bias.
CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for patient, index hospital, index surgeon, and readmission factors, there is a significant 2-fold decrease in survival associated with surgeon care fragmentation regardless of hospital continuity. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A431.
BACKGROUND: In Korea, the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased and obesity is on a rising trend because of a Westernized lifestyle in men.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metabolic health status, as well as BMI, and the incidence of colorectal cancer.
DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted with the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort.
PATIENTS: A total of 408,931 Korean adults without cancer at baseline were followed up until 2013 (mean follow-up, 9 y).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data at baseline were collected and categorized. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was defined using the criteria of previous studies. The incidence of colorectal cancer was also defined according to the International Classification of Disease, 10 Revision, codes and the claim data on endoscopy with biopsy.
RESULTS: During the follow-up, 5108 new cases of colorectal cancer occurred. Being underweight (<18.5 kg/m) reduced the risk for colorectal cancer among women (adjusted HR = 0.646 (95% CI, 0.484-0.863)), whereas high BMI significantly increased the risk in men and in the elderly. Obesity (≥25 kg/m), diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were identified as risk factors for colorectal cancer in men but not for women. Although metabolically unhealthy nonobese men had a higher risk for colorectal cancer than metabolically healthy nonobese men (adjusted HR = 1.114 (95% CI, 1.004-1.236)), the risk was lower than that in the obese men.
LIMITATIONS: The study population consisted of people who underwent health examinations, thus there could be selection bias.
CONCLUSIONS: In Korean adults, obesity contributes to the incidence of colorectal cancer with a sex difference. Nonobese but metabolically unhealthy men are considered to be a high-risk group for colorectal cancer, but obesity itself is more important in colorectal carcinogenesis. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A475.
Oncology (11), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (8), Cardiovascular Diseases (2) Colorectal Neoplasms (11), Obesity (6), Hypertension (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers all over the world, but its epidemiology is obviously different in various regions.
METHODS: The treatment of CRC also has varying characteristics due to differences in economy, geography, disease onset, chemotherapy, and other factors, although international guidelines are used to guide the treatment of CRC in China.
RESULTS: This paper summarizes the current status of CRC treatment, including surgical therapy, neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, postoperative chemotherapy, targeted therapy, maintenance therapy, and immunotherapy, according to the clinical situation in China, so as to provide better therapy and improve clinical practice for patients with CRC.
CONCLUSION: This research shows that the treatment of colorectal cancer continues to progress, and the patient's efficacy and quality of life have improved.
BACKGROUND: There are limited colonoscopy-based cohort data concerning the effectiveness of colonoscopy in reducing colorectal cancer deaths. The aim of this study was to clarify whether colonoscopy reduces colorectal cancer mortality.
METHODS: A cohort of 18,816 patients who underwent colonoscopy without a diagnosis of colorectal cancer between 2001 and 2010 at high colonoscopy procedure volume centers was selected. Patient characteristics and colonoscopy findings were assessed. The main endpoint was colorectal cancer death (all, right-sided, and left-sided cancers), and data were censored at the time of the final visit or the final colonoscopy. The standardized all colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer mortality rates were estimated with reference to those of the general Japanese population. Additional outcome was all- cause death and the standardized all-cause mortality rate was also estimated.
RESULTS: The total observed person-year mortality for colorectal cancer was 67,119. Of these, 4, 3, and 1 patients died from colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers, respectively; these values were significantly lower than the number of expected deaths in the general population, estimated to be 53.1, 34.0, and 19.1, respectively. The standardized mortalities for all colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers were 0.08 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.02-0.17), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.02-0.22), and 0.05 (95% CI, 0.0002-0.21), respectively. There were 586 all-cause deaths (3.11%) during the observation period. The standardized all-cause mortality ratios were 0.22 (95% CI, 0.206-0.23).
CONCLUSIONS: The colorectal cancer mortality of patients who received colonoscopy without colorectal cancer diagnosis decreased significantly compared with that of individuals in the general population. These results were compatible even in patients with right-sided colon cancer.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate cellular immunity and clinical efficacy of ShenQi FuZheng Injection (SFI) in the associated chemotherapy of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), WanFang Database and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) searches were undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials of SFI plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in CRC patients. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Jadad's scale, and Review Manager 5 was used to statisitically analyze the outcomes.
RESULTS: Eight studies involving 722 patients were included in this review. The meta-analyses suggested there was a significantly higher overall response rate (OR 1.89; CI: 1.10-3.24; p = 0.02), grades of KPS (OR 2.35; CI: 1.55-3.56; p<0.01), CD3+cells (MD 10.29; CI: 8.46-12.12; p<0.01), CD4+cells (MD 7.06; CI: 5.33-8.794; p<0.01), CD4/CD8+cells (MD 0.32; CI: 0.25-0.40; p<0.01), NK+ (MD 7.20; CI: 2.02-12.37, p = 0.006), WBC (MD 1.24; CI: 0.59-1.89; p<0.01), HB (MD 14.55; CI: 7.47-21.63; p<0.01), and PLT (MD 19.05; CI: 4.29-33.81; p = 0.01), but lower severe toxicity for leukocytopenia (OR 0.37; CI: 0.17-0.80; p = 0.01), thrombocytopenia (OR 0.32; CI: 0.14-0.74; p = 0.008), gastrointestinal toxicity (OR 0.48; CI: 0.24-0.96; p = 0.04), when chemotherapy combined with SFI was compared with chemotherapy alone. There were similarities between two groups in liver dysfunction (OR 0.44; CI: 0.18-1.08; p = 0.07) and CD8+ (MD 0.54; CI: -1.89-2.96; p = 0.66). Also, there was presence of heterogeneity in the CD8 results; after the sensitivity analysis, the result of CD8+ was reversed (MD 1.57; CI: 0.32-2.81; p = 0.01). There was no significant publication bias across studies according to the Egger's (P = 0.19) and Begg's test (P = 0.23).
CONCLUSION: SFI enhances chemotherapy efficiency as they are combined and used in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. At the same time, SFI also improves patients' immunity function.
Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.
Oncology (1) Neoplasms (2), Colorectal Neoplasms (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) frequently complicates ulcerative colitis (UC) and can mimic disease flare. Differentiating UC flare from CDI remains a clinical challenge, particularly due to C. difficile colonization. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a serum biomarker for bacterial infections. We hypothesized that PCT would differentiate acute CDI from UC flare and C. difficile colonization.
METHODS: A single-center prospective cohort study was conducted from 2013 to 2016. All UC patients with a stool sample for C. difficile testing were eligible. A total of 117 patients were enrolled, while 20 were excluded. Chart review was performed.
RESULTS: Among 27 patients with CDI, median PCT was 60.7 (range 26-560.6) pg/mL, while among 90 patients without CDI, median PCT was 56.7 (range 25.1-2,252) pg/mL (p = 0.9). It was found that 14 patients with CDI responded completely to C. difficile treatment (CDI-R), while 8 patients did not and were diagnosed with UC flare (CDI-NR). For CDI-R, median PCT was 104.5 (range 26.3-560.6), compared to 40.3 (range 26.0-116.3) for CDI-NR (p = 0.036).
CONCLUSIONS: In UC patients presenting with diarrhea, serum PCT was not significantly higher in UC patients with positive C. difficile testing. However, PCT was significantly elevated in CDI-R versus CDI-NR, suggesting that PCT may have utility in making this discrimination.