Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The initiation of protein translation is an important rate-limiting step in eukaryotes and is crucial in many viral infections. Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) are involved in the initiation step of protein translation and are linked to the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore we aimed to investigate a potential role of eIFs in HCC. We herein report on the immunohistochemical expression of the various eIF subunits in 235 cases of virus-related human HCC. Additionally, we used immunoblot analysis to investigate the expression of virus-related HCC and non-virus-related HCC in comparison to controls. Mammalian target of rapamycin (or mechanistic target of rapamycin as it is known now (mTOR) and activated mTOR were significantly increased in chronic hepatitis C (HCV)-associated HCC, in HCC without a viral background, in alcoholic liver disease and Wilson disease. pPTEN, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and pAKT showed a significant increase in HBV- and HCV-associated HCC, chronic hepatitis B, HCC without a viral background, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and Wilson disease. Phosphorylated (p)-eIF2α, eIF2α, eiF3B, eIF3D, eIF3J, p-eIF4B, eIF4G and eIF6 were upregulated in HCV-associated HCC. eIF2α, p-eIF4B, eIF5 and various eIF3 subunits were significantly increased in chronic hepatitis B (HBV)-associated HCC. HCC without viral background displayed a significant increase for the eIF subunits p-2α, 3C, 3I, 4E and 4G. We noticed engraved differences in the expression pattern between chronic hepatitis B and C, HBV- and HCV-associated HCC and non-virus-related HCC.
Infectious Diseases (10), Oncology (2) Chronic Hepatitis B (4), Hepatocellular Carcinoma (3), Chronic Hepatitis C (2), more mentions
Abstract: Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can cause serious, symptomatic disease that is preventable if detected early and managed appropriately. The leading cause of hemochromatosis in populations of predominantly European ancestry is homozygosity of the C282Y variant in the ... cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer) is not at all uncommon among older males with hereditary hemochromatosis.
Oncology (1) Iron Overload (4), Hemochromatosis (4), Liver Diseases (3), more mentions
AbstractText: Hemochromatosis predisposes to dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy which can progress to ... patients listed for HT or HLT for a diagnosis of 'hemochromatosis' between 1987 and 2014. Waitlist and post-transplantation outcomes were compared between patients with hemochromatosis (HT vs HLT) and other etiologies... 81,356 adults listed for heart transplantation, 23 patients with hemochromatosis were identified (16 listed for HLT; and 7 listed for ...
Hemochromatosis (8), Heart Failure (2), Cardiomyopathies (1), more mentions
Hereditary hemochromatosis can be divided into HFE- and non-HFE-related based ... Finally, the patient was diagnosed as ferroportin disease (type 4B hemochromatosis).The present study is the first report to identify a ... classical splicing mutation in the SLC40A1 gene in type 4B hemochromatosis, and provide further evidence of the prevalence of type 4 hereditary hemochromatosis in Asian countries ...
Endocrine Disorders (1) Hemochromatosis (8), Iron Overload (2), Fibrosis (1), more mentions
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder of iron metabolism which may lead to iron overload. Clinical penetrance is low, however those afflicted may develop cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Treatment involves regular phlebotomy to reduce the systemic iron burden. In many countries-including the United States-numerous blood centers do not accept donated blood obtained from HH ...
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) constitute a group of heterogeneous hematopoietic neoplasms characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, anemia, and/or cytopenias. Supportive care for patients with MDS involves frequent red blood cell transfusions, which places patients with ongoing transfusional dependence (TD) at risk for iron overload (IO). Development of IO and tissue iron deposition can increase the risk of cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine toxicities, infection, and progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) is an option for lower-risk MDS patients to reduce their degree of IO and possibly improve survival; use of these agents in thalassemia patients with TD and IO has been associated with reduced IO-associated complications and better survival. At present, there are several barriers to the regular use of ICT, such as a lack of randomized trial evidence and consistent guidance on diagnosis of IO and when to implement ICT, as well as barriers in adherence to/tolerability of ICT.
Oncology (2), Blood Disorders and Hematology (1) Iron Overload (3), Myelodysplastic Syndromes (3), Acute Myeloid Leukemia (2), more mentions
We aimed to evaluate the role of two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2DSTI) in detecting early changes of myocardial deformation in patients affected by thalassemia major (TM) and its relation with myocardial iron overload (MIO) detected by T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We studied 28 TM patients (15 males, 37.4 ± 10 years). All patients underwent CMR and echocardiography in the same day. Segmental and global T2* values were measured. Values of global longitudinal strain (GLS) were derived from the three apical views, while radial and circumferential strain were obtained as average strain from the short axis views at basal, mid and apical level. Six patients (21.4%) showed significant MIO (global heart T2* < 20 ms). GLS showed a significant correlation with T2* values (R = -0.49; P = 0.001) and it was significantly lower in patients with a significant MIO than in those with no significant MIO (-18.3 ± 2 vs. -21.3 ± 2.7, P = 0.02). No significant difference was found for radial and circumferential strain in relation to the severity of MIO. Patients with impaired GLS (<-19.5%) had a significant higher risk of showing significant MIO (Odds-ratio-OR = 17; 95%). GLS is related with global T2* in TM patients. Moreover, GLS can identify TM patients with severe MIO detected by CMR.
OBJECTIVE: Iron accumulation in the endocrine glands has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of decreased reproductive capacity in patients with beta-thalassemia major (β-TM). The aim of the current study was to investigate the serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, in women with transfusion-dependent β-TM.
STUDY DESIGN: In this case-control study, we recruited 43 women with transfusion-dependent TM and 44 age-matched healthy controls. Hormonal and haematological parameters, serum level of AMH, antral follicle count, and ovarian volume were assessed.
RESULTS: Twenty-two of the 43 women were hypogonadotropic, 8 with primary amenorrhea and 14 with secondary amenorrhea. FSH, LH, estradiol, prolactin, and AMH levels; antral follicle count; and ovarian volume were significantly lower in women with TM compared with the control group (p<0.05 for all).
CONCLUSION: AMH level and other ovarian reserve markers are significantly diminished in women with transfusion-dependent TM compared to age-matched controls. Our findings support a deleterious effect of iron overload on ovarian tissue.
beta-Thalassemia (2), Iron Overload (2), Thalassemia Major (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: To investigate the diagnostic performance of native cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping for cardiac iron overload (CIO) in thalassemia patients.
METHODS: All thalassemia patients who underwent CMR were enrolled on a clinical 1.5T scanner. Native T1 mapping with the Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) technique, T2 mapping using a black-blood multi-echo spin-echo technique, and conventional T2* mapping using multi-echo gradient-echo techniques were performed. CIO was defined by a T2* of <20ms; while severe CIO was considered as <10ms.
RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in the study (23.9±14.6years old [mean±SD], 102 male). Among these, 8 patients (4.0%) had CIO. Both native T1 and T2 times were significant different among patients with no CIO, mild-to-moderate CIO, and severe CIO (1012.7±57.7 vs. 846.4±34.4 vs 601.3±34.6ms for T1, p<0.05; 59.6±6.5 vs. 48.7±2.5 vs. 32.8±1.2ms for T2, p<0.05). The best cut-off values for detection of CIO were 887 and 52ms for T1 and T2, respectively. This yielded a sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) of 100%, 98.4% and 0.997 respectively for T1, in comparison to 100%, 88.8% and 0.961 respectively for T2.
CONCLUSIONS: Native T1 mapping can differentiate between severe, mild-to-moderate, and no CIO, which appears to be a promising technique for detection and assessment of myocardial iron.
... RCMs will be presented followed by a detailed discussion on 3 major causes of RCM, for which tailored interventions are available: cardiac amyloidosis, cardiac sarcoidosis, and cardiac hemochromatosis... Clinical clues to promote recognition of cardiac amyloidosis, cardiac sarcoidosis, and cardiac hemochromatosis and imaging techniques used to facilitate diagnosis are discussed.
Cardiomyopathies (4), Sarcoidosis (2), Hemochromatosis (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia is a rare heritable metabolic disorder characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralization accompanied by a deficiency of tissue-non-specific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase activity, caused by a number of loss-of-function mutations in the alkaline phosphatase liver type gene. We seek to explore the clinical manifestations and identify the mutations associated with the disease in a Chinese odonto- hypophosphatasia family.
RESULTS: The proband and his younger brother affected with premature loss of primary teeth at their 2-year-old. They have mild abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxy vitamin D values, but the serum alkaline phosphatase activity of their father, mother and grandmother, who showed no clinical symptoms of hypophosphatasia, was exhibited significant decreased. In addition to premature loss of primary teeth, the proband and his younger brother showed low bone mineral density, X-rays showed that they had slight metaphyseal osteoporosis changes, but no additional skeletal abnormalities. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and analysis revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism c.787T>C (p.Y263H) in exon 7 and/or a novel mutation c.-92C>T located at 5'UTR were found in the affected individuals.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined all individuals of an odonto- hypophosphatasia family by clinical and radiographic examinations as well as laboratory assays. Furthermore, all 12 exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the alkaline phosphatase liver type gene were amplified and directly sequenced for further analysis and screened for mutations.
CONCLUSION: Our present findings suggest the single nucleotide polymorphism c.787T>C and c.-92C>T should be responsible for the odonto- hypophosphatasia disorders in this family.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (2) Hypophosphatasia (5), Osteoporosis (1), more mentions