Recent studies have found that cancer-testis (CT) genes, which are expressed predominantly in germ and cancer cells, may be candidate cancer drivers. Because of their crucial roles, genetic variants in these genes may contribute to the development of cancer. Here, we systematically evaluated associations of common variants in CT genes and their promoters for the risk of lung cancer in our initial GWAS (2331 cases and 3077 controls), followed by in silico replication using additional 10,512 lung cancer cases and 9562 controls. We found a significant association between rs3747093 located in the CCDC116 promoter and lung cancer risk (OR = 0.91, P meta = 7.81 × 10(-6)). Although CCDC116 was expressed at lower levels in somatic tissues compared to the testis, the protective allele A of rs3747093 was associated with decreased CCDC116 expression in many normal tissues, including the lung (P = 8.1 × 10(-13)). We subsequently genotyped this variant in another four commonly diagnosed cancers (gastric, esophageal, colorectal, and breast cancers), as we found expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) signals for rs3747093 and CCDC116 in their corresponding normal tissues. Interestingly, we observed consistent associations between rs3747093 and multiple cancers (gastric cancer: OR = 0.85, P = 2.21 × 10(-4); esophageal cancer: OR = 0.91, P = 2.57 × 10(-2); colorectal cancer: OR = 0.80, P = 1.85 × 10(-6); and breast cancer: OR = 0.87, P = 1.55 × 10(-3)). Taken together, the A allele of rs3747093 showed significant protective effects on cancer risk (OR = 0.88, P pool = 6.52 × 10(-13)) in an Asian population. Moreover, our findings suggest that low abundance expression of CT genes in normal tissues may also contribute to tumorigenesis, providing a new mechanism of CT genes in the development of cancer.
BACKGROUND: The risk of metachronous colorectal cancer is high after surgical resection for first colon cancer in Lynch syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether extended surgery decreases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer and improves long-term survival.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective study.
SETTING: Data were collected from a nationwide registry.
PATIENTS: Two hundred forty-two Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers who underwent surgery for a first colon cancer from 1984 to 2009 were included.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent standard segmental colectomy (n = 144) or extended colectomy (n = 98) for colon cancer. Patients were followed a median of 14.6 up to 25 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of subsequent colorectal cancer in either group, overall and disease-specific survival, and operative mortality were the primary outcomes measured.
RESULTS: Subtotal colectomy decreased the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.52; p = 0.001), compared with segmental resection. Subsequent colorectal cancer decreased in MLH1 carriers. The MSH2 carriers showed no statistical difference, possibly because of their small number. Disease-specific and overall survival within 25 years did not differ between the standard and extended surgeries (82.7% vs 87.2%, p = 0.76 and 47.2% vs 41.4%, p = 0.83). The cumulative risk of subsequent colorectal cancer was 20% in 10 years and 47% within 25 years after standard resection and 4% and 9% after extended surgery. The cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal cancer was 7% within 25 years after subtotal colectomy with ileosigmoidal anastomosis. One patient died of postoperative septicemia within 30 days after segmental colectomy.
LIMITATIONS: Data on surgical procedures were primarily collected retrospectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers may undergo subtotal colectomy to manage first colon cancer and avoid repetitive abdominal surgery and to reduce the remaining bowel to facilitate easier endoscopic surveillance. It provides no survival benefit, compared with segmental colon resection. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A319.
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Importance: Mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach is more effective than colonoscopy outreach for increasing 1-time colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but long-term effectiveness may need repeat testing and timely follow-up for abnormal results.
Objective: Compare the effectiveness of FIT outreach and colonoscopy outreach to increase completion of the CRC screening process (screening initiation and follow-up) within 3 years.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Pragmatic randomized clinical trial from March 2013 to July 2016 among 5999 participants aged 50 to 64 years who were receiving primary care in Parkland Health and Hospital System and were not up to date with CRC screenings.
Interventions: Random assignment to mailed FIT outreach (n = 2400), mailed colonoscopy outreach (n = 2400), or usual care with clinic-based screening (n = 1199). Outreach included processes to promote repeat annual testing for individuals in the FIT outreach group with normal results and completion of diagnostic and screening colonoscopy for those with an abnormal FIT result or assigned to colonoscopy outreach.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was screening process completion, defined as adherence to colonoscopy completion, annual testing for a normal FIT result, diagnostic colonoscopy for an abnormal FIT result, or treatment evaluation if CRC was detected. Secondary outcomes included detection of any adenoma or advanced neoplasia (including CRC) and screening-related harms (including bleeding or perforation).
Results: All 5999 participants (median age, 56 years; women, 61.9%) were included in the intention-to-screen analyses. Screening process completion was 38.4% in the colonoscopy outreach group, 28.0% in the FIT outreach group, and 10.7% in the usual care group. Compared with the usual care group, between-group differences for completion were higher for both outreach groups (27.7% [95% CI, 25.1% to 30.4%] for the colonoscopy outreach group; 17.3% [95% CI, 14.8% to 19.8%] for FIT outreach group), and highest in the colonoscopy outreach group (10.4% [95% CI, 7.8% to 13.1%] for the colonoscopy outreach group vs FIT outreach group; P < .001 for all comparisons). Compared with usual care, the between-group differences in adenoma and advanced neoplasia detection rates were higher for both outreach groups (colonoscopy outreach group: 10.3% [95% CI, 9.5% to 12.1%] for adenoma and 3.1% [95% CI, 2.0% to 4.1%] for advanced neoplasia, P < .001 for both comparisons; FIT outreach group: 1.3% [95% CI, -0.1% to 2.8%] for adenoma and 0.7% [95% CI, -0.2% to 1.6%] for advanced neoplasia, P < .08 and P < .13, respectively), and highest in the colonoscopy outreach group (colonoscopy outreach group vs FIT outreach group: 9.0% [95% CI, 7.3% to 10.7%] for adenoma and 2.4% [95% CI, 1.3% to 3.3%] for advanced neoplasia, P < .001 for both comparisons). There were no screening-related harms in any groups.
Conclusions and Relevance: Among persons aged 50 to 64 years receiving primary care at a safety-net institution, mailed outreach invitations offering FIT or colonoscopy compared with usual care increased the proportion completing CRC screening process within 3 years. The rate of screening process completion was higher with colonoscopy than FIT outreach.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01710215.
AbstractText: In the phase 3 RADIANT-4 trial, everolimus increased progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with advanced, progressive, non-functional, well-differentiated gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumours (NETs. We now report the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) secondary endpoint AbstractText: RADIANT-4 is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done in 97 ...
INTRODUCTION: The optimal treatment strategy for RAS wild type (WT) mCRC is controversial. Our phase III study investigated the effect of introducing earlier (second-line) or later (third-line) cetuximab in patients progressed after FOLFIRI/bevacizumab first-line.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: mCRC patients progressing after FOLFIRI/bevacizumab first-line were randomised to receive second-line irinotecan/cetuximab followed by third-line FOLFOX-4 (arm A) or the reverse sequence (arm B). Primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: About 54 and 56 patients were randomised in arm A and in arm B, respectively. After a median follow-up of 37.5 months, 100 PFS events were recorded. Median PFS was 9.9 months in arm A and 11.3 months in arm B (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-1.56, p = 0.854), while median overall survival was 12.3 months in arm A and 18.6 months in arm B (HR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.55-1.28; p = 0.411). No overall difference in side-effects were observed between the two treatment arms.
CONCLUSIONS: This trial did not meet the primary end-point (PFS). Like other preclinical and clinical evidences, our study seems to suggest a reduced activity of cetuximab after a first-line bevacizumab-based therapy.
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at Commission on Cancer designated hospitals.
PATIENTS: Patients (2006-2012) identified in the National Cancer Database with pretreatment clinical stage I to III cancers who underwent chemoradiotherapy, with and without subsequent salvage surgical resection (low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection), ≥12 weeks after chemoradiotherapy were included in the study.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall survival and the need for salvage surgery were measured.
RESULTS: Anal cancers (n = 11,224) typically presented with stage II (45.7%) or III (36.3%) disease, whereas rectal cancer stages (n = 1049) were more evenly distributed (p < 0.001). More patients with rectal cancer underwent low anterior or abdominoperineal resections 12 weeks or later after chemoradiotherapy versus those undergoing abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer (3.8% versus 1.2%; p < 0.001). Stage I and II rectal cancer was associated with poorer survival compared with anal cancer (stage I, p = 0.017; stage II, p < 0.001); survival was similar for stage III disease. Salvage surgery for anal cancer was associated with worse survival for stage I to III cancers; salvage surgery did not significantly affect survival for rectal cancer.
LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective study without cancer-specific survival measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Squamous rectal cancers are associated with significantly worse survival than squamous cancers of the anus for clinical stage I and II disease. Despite both cancers exhibiting squamous histology, rectal cancers may be less radiosensitive than anal cancers, as suggested by the greater incidence of salvage surgery that does not appear to significantly improve overall survival. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A422.
Oncology (11) Rectal Neoplasms (5), Anus Neoplasms (4), Neoplasms (4), more mentions
DescriptorName: Female. DescriptorName: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors... Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that are not driven by kinase mutations, as are most GISTs, often show loss of function of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex and are considered SDH-deficient GISTs. SDH-deficient GISTs share many distinct characteristics compared with conventional GISTs.
BACKGROUND: There are many previous reports for using the internal pudendal artery perforator flap in vulvovaginal reconstruction; however, reports of this flap for perineal reconstruction after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum are scarce.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of immediate internal pudendal artery perforator flap reconstruction for irradiated abdominoperineal resection defects.
DESIGN: This was a prospective case series.
SETTINGS: This flap could represent a step forward over other perineal flap approaches or primary closure.
PATIENTS: A total of 73 consecutive patients with anorectal tumors were included.
INTERVENTIONS: The study included immediate perineal reconstruction using 122 internal pudendal artery perforator flaps after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dimensions of the perineal defect (in centimeters squared), hospital stay (days), healing time (days), and postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grades) were measured.
RESULTS: The means of the perineal defect, hospital stay, and healing time were 51.62 cm, 15.94 days, and 38.52 days. The higher the patient BMI, the longer healing time (p = 0.02); Clavien-Dindo complications grades III to IV were greater in patients with perineal defect ≥60 cm (p = 0.03; OR = 10.56); postoperative complications were higher both in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.005; OR = 6.09) and in patients with comorbidities (p = 0.04; OR = 2.78); hospital stay (p= 0.001) and healing time (p < 0.001) were higher in patients who had postoperative complications. The complete perineal wound healing at 12 weeks was achieved by 95% of patients, and our 30-day mortality rate was 4%.
LIMITATIONS: As a nonrandomized study, our results have to be interpreted with caution.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple previously described advantages associated with internal pudendal artery perforator flap were also observed here, reinforcing the idea that it is reliable, versatile, and a useful option for perineal reconstruction after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Therefore, we propose that this flap could be considered as the first choice for perineal reconstruction in selected patients with moderate and some large defects after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A367.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (1), Anus Neoplasms (1), Carcinoma (1), more mentions
Purpose After preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision for locally advanced rectal cancer, patients who experience local or systemic relapse of disease may be eligible for curative salvage surgery, but the benefit of this surgery has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize recurrence patterns and investigate the impact of salvage surgery on survival in patients with rectal cancer after receiving multidisciplinary treatment. Patients and Methods Patients with locally advanced (cT3-4 or cN+) rectal cancer who were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision at our institution during 1993 to 2008 were identified. We examined patterns of recurrence location, time to recurrence, treatment factors, and survival. Results A total of 735 patients were included. Tumors were mostly midrectal to lower rectal cancer, with a median distance from the anal verge of 5.0 cm. The most common recurrence site was the lung followed by the liver. Median time to recurrence was shorter in liver-only recurrence (11.2 months) than in lung-only recurrence (18.2 months) or locoregional-only recurrence (24.7 months; P = .001). Salvage surgery was performed in 57% of patients with single-site recurrence and was associated with longer survival after recurrence in patients with lung-only and liver-only recurrence ( P < .001) but not in those with locoregional-only recurrence ( P = .353). Conclusion We found a predilection for lung recurrence in patients with rectal cancer after multidisciplinary treatment. Salvage surgery was associated with prolonged survival in patients with lung-only and liver-only recurrence, but not in those with locoregional recurrence, which demonstrates a need for careful consideration of the indications for resection.
AIMS: The presence and significance of extranodal tumour deposits (ENTDs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) continue to cause controversy in terms of origin, classification and prognostic significance. This review aims to assess current evidence on the origin of ENTDs in CRC and their effect on overall and disease-free survival.
METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. End-points included prevalence of ENTDs, relationship with extramural venous invasion (EMVI), overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using Stata software.
RESULTS: Twenty-six studies comprising 19,980 patients were included. The prevalence of ENTDs ranged from 10.2% to 44.2% (median 21.3%). There was a significantly increased odds of having ENTD if EMVI was present with a pooled OR of 2.51 (95% CI 2.27-2.77) p ≤ 0.001. The pooled HR for adverse OS in patients with ENTD was 1.63 (95% CI 1.44-1.61), p ≤ 0.001. For adverse DFS the pooled HR was 1.77 (95% CI 1.37-2.11), p ≤ 0.001.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirms the negative impact of ENTDs on OS and DFS despite variations in classification and prevalence. ENTDs are significantly associated with EMVI. The prognostic implications of ENTDs are not sufficiently recognised in current staging systems. TNM 8 has failed to address this and has not made use of the available evidence to determine the correct position of ENTDs according to their prognostic effect. The prognostic hierarchy should be N0, N1, N2 with N1c being the most severe. Additionally the exclusion of lesions of vascular, lymphatic and perineural origin by TNM 8 has no evidence base.
BACKGROUND: Since 2003, care for patients with oesophageal cancer has been centralized in a few dedicated centres in Denmark. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the treatment and outcome of patients registered in a nationwide database.
METHODS: All patients diagnosed with oesophageal cancer or cancer of the gastro-oesophageal junction who underwent oesophagectomy in Denmark between 2004 and 2013, and who were registered in the Danish clinical database of carcinomas in the oesophagus, gastro-oesophageal junction and stomach (DECV database) were included. Quality-of-care indicators, including number of lymph nodes removed, anastomotic leak rate, 30- and 90-day mortality, and 2- and 5-year overall survival, were assessed. To compare quality-of-care indicators over time, the relative risk (RR) was calculated using a multivariable log binomial regression model.
RESULTS: Some 6178 patients were included, of whom 1728 underwent oesophagectomy. The overall number of patients with 15 or more lymph nodes in the resection specimen increased from 38·1 per cent in 2004 to 88·7 per cent in 2013. The anastomotic leak rate decreased from 14·8 to 7·6 per cent (RR 0·66, 95 per cent c.i. 0·43 to 1·01). The 30-day mortality rate decreased from 4·5 to 1·7 per cent (RR 0·51, 0·22 to 1·15) and the 90-day mortality rate from 11·0 to 2·9 per cent (RR 0·46, 0·26 to 0·82). There were no statistically significant changes in 2- or 5-year survival rates over time.
CONCLUSION: Indicators of quality of care have improved since the centralization of oesophageal cancer treatment in Denmark.
AbstractText: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant gastrointestinaltumor with a high mortality rate, including both colon and rectal cancer. In order to provide clinical guidance for the treatment of CRC, this study is conducted to investigate the correlations of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility and multidrug resistance (MDR) of colorectal cancer (CRC) AbstractText: A ...
BACKGROUND: Protective effects of calcium supplementation against colorectal adenomas have been documented in systematic reviews; however, the results have not been conclusive. Our objective was to update and systematically evaluate the evidence for calcium supplementation taking into consideration the risks of systematic and random error and to GRADE the evidence.
METHODS: The study comprised a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched for RCTs published up until September 2016. Retrieved trials were evaluated using risk of bias. Primary outcome measures were the incidences of any recurrent adenomas and of advanced adenomas. Meta-analytic estimates were calculated with the random-effects model and random errors were evaluated with trial sequential analyses (TSAs).
RESULTS: Five randomized trials (2234 patients with a history of adenomas) were included. Two of the 5 trials showed either unclear or high risks of bias in most criteria. Meta-analysis of good quality RCTs suggest a moderate protective effect of calcium supplementation on recurrence of adenomas (relative risk [RR], 0.88 [95% CI 0.79-0.99]); however, its effects on advanced adenomas did not show statistical significance (RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.67-1.55]). Subgroup analyses demonstrated a greater protective effect on recurrence of adenomas with elemental calcium dose ≥1600 mg/day (RR, 0.74 [95% CI 0.56-0.97]) compared to ≤1200 mg/day (RR, 0.84 [95% CI 0.73-0.97]). No major serious adverse events were associated with the use of calcium, but there was an increase in the incidence of hypercalcemia (P = .0095). TSA indicated a lack of firm evidence for a beneficial effect. Concerns with directness and imprecision rated down the quality of the evidence to "low."
CONCLUSION: The available good quality RCTs suggests a possible beneficial effect of calcium supplementation on the recurrence of adenomas; however, TSA indicated that the accumulated evidence is still inconclusive. Using GRADE-methodology, we conclude that the quality of evidence is low. Large well-designed randomized trials with low risk of bias are needed.
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI as a routine preoperative procedure for all patients with colorectal cancer remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI for the diagnosis of liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective analysis from a prospective cohort database.
SETTINGS: All of the patients were from a subspecialty practice at a tertiary referral hospital.
PATIENTS: Patients who received preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI after CT and attempted curative surgery for colorectal cancer were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of equivocal hepatic lesions based on CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diagnostic use of the gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI were measured.
RESULTS: We reviewed the records of 690 patients with colorectal cancer. Equivocal hepatic lesions were present in 17.2% of patients based on CT and in 4.5% based on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI. Among 496 patients with no liver metastasis based on CT, gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI detected equivocal lesions in 15 patients and metastasis in 3 patients. Among 119 patients who had equivocal liver lesions on CT, gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI indicated hepatic lesions in 103 patients (86.6%), including 90 with no metastasis and 13 with metastasis. Among 75 patients who had liver metastasis on CT, gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI indicated that the hepatic lesions in 2 patients were benign, in contrast to CT findings. The initial surgical plans for hepatic lesions according to CT were changed in 17 patients (3%) after gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.
LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its retrospective design.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI as a routine preoperative procedure for all patients with colorectal cancer is low, in spite of its high diagnostic value for detecting liver metastasis. However, this study showed gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI was helpful in characterizing equivocal hepatic lesions identified in CT and could lead to change in treatment plans for some patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A420.
Oncology (13) Colorectal Neoplasms (7), Liver Neoplasms (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the predominant oestrogen receptor in the normal colon mucosa and has been reported to exert anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. However, the role of ERβ in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression remains unclear.
AIM: To investigate the role of ERβ and its association with hormone status and lifestyle indicators in a female cohort of patients with CRC.
METHODS: Tissue microarrays of primary CRC tumour samples from 320 female patients were conducted with a monoclonal anti-ERβ antibody. The staining intensity was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The association of ERβ expression with overall survival, disease-free survival, hormone status and lifestyle was evaluated, and effect estimators with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.
RESULTS: Among the 314 samples with successfully detected ERβ, 182 (58%) had low expression and 132 (42%) had high expression. The Cox multivariate analysis indicated that patients with high ERβ expression had a decreased risk of overall mortality by 50% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.50; CI, 0.30-0.83) and of cancer recurrence by 76% (HR, 0.24; CI, 0.11-0.52) after adjusting for age, tumour-node-metastasis stage and tumour intravascular invasion. Furthermore, high ERβ expression was significantly correlated with shorter breastfeeding time and longer use of hormone replacement therapy. No association was found between ERβ expression and lifestyle indicators.
CONCLUSION: Elevated ERβ expression is independently associated with a better prognosis and hormone status but not lifestyle indicators in female CRC patients.
Oncology (11) Colorectal Neoplasms (4), Neoplasms (3), more mentions
We conducted an open-label single-arm phase II study by combining irinotecan (FOLFIRI) and bevacizumab (BV) plus erlotinib (ER) in 2nd-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).Eligible mCRC patients received 1st-line standard chemotherapy but still had progressive disease. They were given FOLFIRI plus BV at 2.5 mg/kg on day 1 per 2-week cycle, and daily 150 mg ER. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS).A total of 122 patients enrolled in the study. Among them, 55.7% were male patients and median age was 58.4 years (29-72 years). Median PFS was 7.1 months (95% CI 4.3-10.2). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.5 months (95% CI 9.7-16.4). No patients had complete responses, 24 patients had partial response (19.6%) and 59 had stable disease (48.4%). The most frequent adverse event (AE) was rash, with 66 patients (54.1%) had grade 3/4 rash. Other frequent grade 3/4 AEs were fatigue (n = 36, 29.5%), bleeding (n = 31, 25.4%), neutropenia (n = 23, 18.9%), and platelets (n = 14, 11.5%).Combining FOLFIRI and BV plus ER in 2nd-line chemotherapy is efficient to treat mCRC patients with acceptable safety.
BACKGROUND: Long waiting times from early symptoms to diagnosis and treatment may influence the staging and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We analyzed the effect of colonoscopy timing on the outcome of these patients.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the outcome (tumoral staging and long-term survival) of patients with suspected colorectal cancer according to diagnostic colonoscopy timing.
DESIGN: This study is an analysis of a prospectively maintained database.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at the Open Access Endoscopy Service of the tertiary public healthcare center Hospital Universitario de Canarias, in the Spanish island of Tenerife.
PATIENTS: Consecutive patients diagnosed of colorectal cancer between February 2008 and October 2010, fulfilling 1 or more National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence criteria, were assigned to early colonoscopy (<30 days from referral) or to standard-schedule colonoscopy at the discretion of the referring physician. Tumor staging (TNM classification) at diagnosis and long-term survival after treatment were compared in both strategies.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were the stage at presentation and overall survival, as determined by prompt or standard referral.
RESULTS: Overall, 257 patients with colorectal cancer were diagnosed (101 at early colonoscopy and 156 at standard-schedule colonoscopy). TNM stages I and II were found in 52 (54.2%) and 60 (41.7%) patients in the early colonoscopy group and standard-schedule colonoscopy group. Stage IV was confirmed in 13 patients (13.5%) diagnosed in the early colonoscopy group and in 40 (28%) detected in the standard-schedule colonoscopy group. Survival rates at 12 and 60 months after treatment were significantly higher in the early colonoscopy group compared with the standard-schedule colonoscopy group (p < 0.001).
LIMITATIONS: Controlled randomization of early versus standard-referral colonoscopy, size and scope of analysis, the time interval from symptom onset to first physician assessment, and the different locations of colorectal cancer between groups were limitations of the study.
CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopy within 30 days from referral improves outcome in patients with symptomatic colorectal cancer. See Video Abstract at http://journals.lww.com/dcrjournal/Pages/videogallery.aspx.
Oncology (9), Blood Disorders and Hematology (1) Colorectal Neoplasms (8), Neoplasms (3), Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage (1), more mentions
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman's 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Major guidelines concur that women at average risk of breast cancer benefit from screening mammography at least every other year from 50 to 74 years of age. Several effective options for colorectal cancer screening are recommended for women 50 to 75 years of age. Cervical cancer screening should occur at three- or five-year intervals depending on the test used, and can generally be discontinued after 65 years of age or total hysterectomy for benign disease. Screening for ovarian cancer is not recommended. Clinicians should consider screening for sexually transmitted infections in older women at high risk. Postmenopausal women should be routinely screened for depression, alcohol abuse, and intimate partner violence.
Oncology (5), Cardiovascular Diseases (3), Women's Health (2) Cardiovascular Diseases (3), Colorectal Neoplasms (2), Breast Neoplasms (2), more mentions
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BACKGROUND: Major surgery such as oesophagectomy requires a postoperative stay in intensive care. Painful stimuli lead to sleep disturbance and impairment in quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychological counselling and sleep adjuvant measures on postoperative quality of sleep and quality of life.
METHODS: This RCT was performed between January 2013 and October 2015. Patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer were randomized into one of four groups receiving: psychological counselling plus sleep adjuvant measures during the ICU stay; psychological counselling alone; sleep adjuvant measures alone during the ICU stay; or standard care. The primary endpoint was impairment in quality of life measured using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer C30-QL2 questionnaire between admission for surgery and discharge from hospital. The secondary endpoint was impairment in quality of sleep assessed by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index between admission for surgery and hospital discharge.
RESULTS: The local ethics committee approved the early termination of the study because of relevant changes in the ICU setting. Some 87 patients were randomized and 74 patients were evaluated in the analysis. Psychological counselling reduced the impairment in quality of life (odds ratio 0·23, 95 per cent c.i. 0·09 to 0·61) and in quality of sleep (odds ratio 0·27, 0·10 to 0·73).
CONCLUSION: Perioperative psychological support reduces impairment in quality of life and quality of sleep after oesophagectomy. Registration number: NCT01738620 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).
Oncology (2) Neoplasms (2), Esophageal Neoplasms (1), more mentions