AbstractText: The review summarizes the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the most important etiologic agents of infectiousdiarrhea in critically ill transplant recipients AbstractText: Diarrhea, frequently caused by infectious pathogens, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. Diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, acute renal failure, medication toxicity, rejection, graft-versus-host disease and ...
Diarrhea (5), Graft vs Host Disease (1), Dehydration (1), more mentions
RATIONALE: The rare disease cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE) is characterized by multiple and recurring small intestinal ulcers with stenosis of unknown causes. In clinic, it is difficult to be differentiated from the inflammatory bowel disease, especially the Crohn disease.
PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we report a pair of siblings who suffered from long-time anemia and abdominal pain and misdiagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for many years.
DIAGNOSES: They were finally diagnosed with CMUSE with intestinal obstruction.
INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: They both accepted surgical treatment and recovered well. No abdominal symptom appeared in the two-year follow-up.
LESSONS: This report underscores that CMUSE patients may have a long course of suffering from anemia and abdominal pain, normal inflammatory markers and normal colon, and sometimes have a family history of CMUSE. Surgery of segmental bowel resection is a good way to solve intractable intestinal obstruction in CMUSE.
Blood Disorders and Hematology (3), Orphan Diseases (1) Intestinal Obstruction (3), Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (3), Anemia (3), more mentions
McMaster PLUS Selected
This article has been identified as especially clinically relevant or newsworthy by at least 3
practicing clinicians and of high scientific quality by expert researchers
as a part of the McMaster PLUS article rating service.
OBJECTIVES: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease usually responding well to anti-inflammatory drugs but many patients will still need colectomy. Appendectomy is associated with a lower risk of later developing UC. We aimed to assess the longitudinal relationship between appendectomy, appendicitis, and disease course in UC patients.
METHODS: A national cohort of UC patients with a diagnosis in 1964-2010 was identified from the Swedish National Patient Register that also provided information regarding appendicitis and/or appendectomy before or after the UC diagnosis. The risk for colectomy and UC-related hospital admissions was evaluated.
RESULTS: Among 63,711 UC patients, 2,143 had appendectomy and 7,690 underwent colectomy. Appendectomy for appendicitis before 20 years of age and for non-appendicitis at all ages before UC diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of colectomy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.44, 0.27-0.72 and HR 0.62, 0.43-0.90, respectively), and fewer hospital admissions (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.73 and IRR 0.54, 0.47-0.63, respectively). Appendectomy for appendicitis after the UC diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of colectomy (HR 1.56, 1.20-2.03), whereas no such association was found for other pathology (HR 1.40, 0.79-2.47).
CONCLUSIONS: Appendectomy early in life and before developing UC is associated with a lower risk of colectomy as well as UC-related hospital admissions. Appendectomy for appendicitis after established UC appears associated with a worse disease course, with an increased rate of subsequent colectomy.
Appendicitis (6), Ulcerative Colitis (2), Colitis (1), more mentions
McMaster PLUS Selected
This article has been identified as especially clinically relevant or newsworthy by at least 3
practicing clinicians and of high scientific quality by expert researchers
as a part of the McMaster PLUS article rating service.
BACKGROUND: Major surgery such as oesophagectomy requires a postoperative stay in intensive care. Painful stimuli lead to sleep disturbance and impairment in quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychological counselling and sleep adjuvant measures on postoperative quality of sleep and quality of life.
METHODS: This RCT was performed between January 2013 and October 2015. Patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer were randomized into one of four groups receiving: psychological counselling plus sleep adjuvant measures during the ICU stay; psychological counselling alone; sleep adjuvant measures alone during the ICU stay; or standard care. The primary endpoint was impairment in quality of life measured using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer C30-QL2 questionnaire between admission for surgery and discharge from hospital. The secondary endpoint was impairment in quality of sleep assessed by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index between admission for surgery and hospital discharge.
RESULTS: The local ethics committee approved the early termination of the study because of relevant changes in the ICU setting. Some 87 patients were randomized and 74 patients were evaluated in the analysis. Psychological counselling reduced the impairment in quality of life (odds ratio 0·23, 95 per cent c.i. 0·09 to 0·61) and in quality of sleep (odds ratio 0·27, 0·10 to 0·73).
CONCLUSION: Perioperative psychological support reduces impairment in quality of life and quality of sleep after oesophagectomy. Registration number: NCT01738620 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).
Oncology (2) Neoplasms (2), Esophageal Neoplasms (1), more mentions
Because an esophageal submucosa tumor (SMT) may be malignant despite its small size, a safe endoscopic resection method is needed in some small SMTs. Conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may be simple, but incomplete pathologic resection margin status is common. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of 2 kinds of EMR techniques (conventional EMR and EMR with band ligation device) and to evaluate the factors associated with incomplete pathologic resection.We evaluated the medical records of 36 patients. All lesions were esophageal SMTs located in the submucosa or muscularis mucosa less than 10 mm in size by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The clinical outcomes based on the endoscopic procedures and factors associated with incomplete pathologic resection were evaluated.The mean tumor size was 6.6 ± 4.1 mm. The overall en bloc and complete resection rates were 100% and 80.6%, respectively. No procedure-related complications, such as perforation and bleeding, were found. Univariate analysis showed that complete resection rates were higher in granular cell tumors than in leiomyomas (82.8% vs 17.2%, P = .029), tumors located in the submucosa layer than in the muscularis mucosa (96.6% vs 3.4%, P = .003), and in EMR with band ligation device than in conventional EMR (82.8% vs 17.2%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that conventional EMR was the only significant factor associated with incomplete resection (OR, 35.594; 95% CI, 2.042-520.329; P = .014)EMR with a band ligation device is an effective and safe treatment method for small esophageal SMT.
Neoplasms (5), Granular Cell Tumor (1), Leiomyoma (1), more mentions
AbstractThis prospective cohort study describes travelers' diarrhea (TD) and non-TD gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms among international travelers from the Boston area, the association of TD with traveler characteristics and dietary practices, use of prescribed antidiarrheal medications, and the impact of TD and non-TD GI symptoms on planned activities during and after travel. We included adults who received a pre-travel consultation at three Boston-area travel clinics and who completed a three-part survey: pre-travel, during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). TD was defined as self-reported diarrhea with or without nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, or fever. Demographic and travel characteristics were evaluated by χ(2) test for categorical and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables. Analysis of dietary practices used logistic generalized estimating equation models or logistic regression models. Of 628 travelers, 208 (33%) experienced TD and 45 (7%) experienced non-TD GI symptoms. Of 208 with TD, 128 (64%), 71 (36%), and 123 (62%) were prescribed ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and/or loperamide before travel, respectively. Thirty-nine (36%) of 108 took ciprofloxacin, 20 (38%) of 55 took azithromycin, and 28 (28%) of 99 took loperamide during travel. Of 172 with TD during travel, 24% stopped planned activities, and 2% were hospitalized. Of 31 with non-TD GI symptoms during travel, six (13%) stopped planned activities. International travelers continue to experience diarrhea and other GI symptoms, resulting in disruption of planned activities and healthcare visits for some. Although these illnesses resulted in interruption of travel plans, a relatively small proportion took prescribed antibiotics.
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage is an alternative to sigmoid resection in Hinchey III diverticulitis (generalized purulent peritonitis). The main limitation of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage is the higher rate of reoperation for persistent sepsis in comparison with sigmoid resection.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to identify risk factors for laparoscopic peritoneal lavage failure in patients who have Hinchey III diverticulitis.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective multicenter study.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted in 3 clinical sites in France.
PATIENTS: From 2006 to 2015, all consecutive patients undergoing emergent surgery for diverticulitis were reviewed. All patients operated on with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for laparoscopically confirmed Hinchey III diverticulitis were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was laparoscopic peritoneal lavage failure, defined as reoperation or death at 30 postoperative days.
RESULTS: A series of 71 patients (43 men, mean age 58 ± 15 years) were operated on with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for Hinchey III diverticulitis. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage failed in 14 (20%) of them: 1 died and 13 underwent reoperations. No major complication (Dindo-Clavien score ≥3) occurred after reoperation. Immunosuppressive drugs (p = 0.01) and ASA grade ≥3 (p = 0.02) were associated with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage failure after univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis identified only immunosuppressive drug intake (steroids or chemotherapy for cancer) as an independent predictive factor. Mean length of stay was 14.9 days (5-67). At the end of the 30 first postoperative days, 12 (17%) patients had a stoma.
LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective nature and the small size of the cohort.
CONCLUSION: Our results highlight immunosuppressive drug intake as a major risk factor for laparoscopic peritoneal lavage failure in patients who have Hinchey III diverticulitis. Immunosuppression and severe comorbidities (ASA ≥3) should be considered when selecting a surgical option in patients with Hinchey III diverticulitis. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A423.
Oncology (1) Diverticulitis (9), Peritonitis (2), Neoplasms (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery increases postoperative mortality, cancer recurrence, permanent stoma formation, and poor bowel function. Anastomosis between the colon and rectum is a particularly high risk. Traditional management mandates laparotomy, disassembly of the anastomosis, and formation of an often-permanent stoma. After laparoscopic colorectal surgery it may be possible to manage anastomotic failure with laparoscopy, thus avoiding laparotomy.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the laparoscopic management of failed low colorectal anastomoses.
SETTING: This was a single-institute case series.
PATIENTS: A total of 555 laparoscopic patients undergoing anterior resection with primary anastomosis within 10 cm of the anus in the period 2000-2012 were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anastomotic failure, defined as any clinical or radiological demonstrable defect in the anastomosis; complications using the Clavien-Dindo system; mortality within 30 days; and patient demographics and risk factors, as defined by the Charlson index, were measured.
RESULTS: Leakage occurred in 44 (7.9%) of 555 patients, 16 patients with a diverting ileostomy and 28 with no diverting ileostomy. Leakage was more common in those with anastomoses <5 cm form the anus, male patients, and those with a colonic J-pouch and rectal cancer. Diverting ileostomy was not protective of anastomotic leakage. In those patients with anastomotic leakage and a primary diverting ileostomy, recourse to the peritoneal cavity was required in 4 of 16 patients versus 24 of 28 without a diverting ileostomy (p = 0.0002). In 74% of those cases, access to the peritoneal cavity was achieved through laparoscopy. Permanent stoma rates were very low, including 14 (2.5%) of 555 total patients or 8 (18.0%) of 44 patients with anastomotic leakage. Thirty-day mortality was rare (0.6%).
LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the lack of a cohort of open cases for comparison.
CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic anterior resection is associated with low levels of complications, including anastomotic leak, postoperative mortality, and permanent stoma formation. Anastomotic leakage can be managed with laparoscopy in the majority of cases. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A353.
Oncology (2), Women's Health (1) Anastomotic Leak (8), Rectal Neoplasms (2), Endometriosis (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and atrophic gastritis (AG) with pancreatic cancer risk.
METHODS: A literature search in PubMed was performed up to July 2017. Only prospective cohort and nested case-control studies enrolling cancer-free participants were eligible. Incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained during the follow-up. The risks of pancreatic cancer were compared between persons infected and noninfected with Hp, or between those with and without AG status at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios were combined. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed, and publication bias was estimated.
RESULTS: Three cohort studies and 6 nested case-control studies, including 65,155 observations, were analyzed. The meta-analyses did not confirm the association between pancreatic cancer risk and Hp infection (OR = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-1.47) or AG status (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.80-1.72). However, particular subpopulations potentially had increased risks of pancreatic cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-negative strains of Hp might be a causative factor of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.62), but a sensitivity analysis by leave-one-out method did not fully warrant it (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.93-1.56). In 1 nested case-control study, AG at stomach corpus in Hp-negative subpopulation might have increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but with a poor test power = 0.56. Publication biases were nonsignificant in the present meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Based on current prospective epidemiologic studies, the linkage of pancreatic cancer to Hp infection or AG status was not warranted on the whole. Nevertheless, prospective studies only focusing on those specific subpopulations are further required to obtain better power.
Circular RNAs are new type of endogenous RNAs, which play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and indicate a great capacity in clinical diagnosis and treatments of diseases. However, the role of circular RNAs in gastric cancer remains unknown. In this study, we chose hsa_circ_0006633 as the target circular RNA and measured its levels in human gastric cancer tissues, plasma, and gastric cell lines by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hsa_circ_0006633 levels at multiple stages of gastric tumorigenesis were then explored, and its relationships with clinicopathological features were analyzed as well. We found that the expression levels of hsa_circ_0006633 in four gastric cancer cell lines, HGC-27, SGC-7901, MGC-803, and AGS, were downregulated than those in normal gastric mucosal epithelial cell line GES-1. Then, we further detected that it was downregulated in 79.2% (76/96) gastric cancer tissues compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissues. The lower expression of hsa_circ_0006633 was associated with cancer distal metastasis ( p = 0.037) and tissue carcinoembryonic antigen level ( p = 0.041). In addition, hsa_circ_0006633 expression was significantly decreased in gastritis and dysplasia tissues comparing with the healthy control. Moreover, plasma hsa_circ_0006633 levels were significantly increased in gastric cancer compared with healthy control. Our data imply that hsa_circ_0006633 may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and is also a potential biomarker for screening gastric cancer.
In April 2016, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness (4,136 cases) occurred in Catalonia, Spain. We detected high levels of norovirus genotypes I and II in office water coolers associated with the outbreak. Infectious viral titer estimates were 33-49 genome copies/L for genotype I and 327-660 genome copies/L for genotype II.
Abstract: Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE... Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. More specifically, classes such as Bacteroides and Clostridia are differentially abundant in many PI-IBS patients.
AbstractText: To investigate the time trends of the prevalence and predictors of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the United States from 2005 to 2014 using nationally representative data AbstractText: AGE results in numerous visits to emergency departments and outpatient clinics annually in the United States with the estimated attributable cost to ...
AbstractText: Acute gastroenteritis (AG) leads to considerable burden of disease, health care costs and socio-economic impact worldwide... While a national strategy to reduce the burden of ILI exists, similar comprehensive prevention efforts should be considered for AG Keyword: Acute gastroenteritis. Keyword: Antibiotics. Keyword: Infectious intestinal diseases. Keyword: Primary health care.
Eosinphilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration with various manifestations. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by an endoscopic biopsy, which is considered a safe and routine procedure for the majority.We report a 54-year-old male who was presented with intermittent periumbilical pain and melena, and only revealed verrucous gastritis by endoscopy.The patient's condition ...
The feasibility of expanding the indications for endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer based on long-term outcomes has shown conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate whether outcomes or adverse events associated with endoscopic submucosal dissection are comparable to those of surgery for early gastric cancer that including the absolute and expanded indications.Data of 159 early gastric cancers from 153 patients treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection or surgery between January 2004 and October 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Early gastric cancers fulfilled the absolute or expanded indications with differentiated type adenocarcinoma were included.The endoscopic submucosal dissection and surgery group showed no significant difference in the incidence of residual disease (P = .48), local recurrence (P = .46), and metachronous cancer (P = .22). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in 2-year (97.6% versus [vs] 92.4%; P = .45) and 5-year (95.8% vs 95.6%; P = .26) overall survival rate between 2 groups. There was also no significant difference in 2-year (100% vs 94.1%; P = .98) and 5-year (100% vs 98.4%; P = .89) disease-free survival rate. Early and late adverse events also showed no significant differences.For the treatment of early gastric cancer fulfilled absolute and expanded indications, endoscopic submucosal dissection is not inferior modality regarding the clinical outcomes and safety, compared with surgery.
Concomitant gastric stromal tumor (GST) and gastric cancer (GC) is uncommon; even more uncommon is a concomitant GST and early stage GC (EGC). Tumor resection by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for concomitant GST and EGC has not been reported. We sought to define the clinical importance of detection of concomitant GST and EGC during the first esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), and compare the clinical outcomes of ESD versus radical surgery for the treatment of concomitant GST and EGC. Our investigation was a retrospective cohort study. Patients with concomitant GST and EGC who underwent ESD or radical surgery were enrolled at the university-affiliated hospital from January 2005 to January 2015. The detection rate of concomitant GST and EGC during the first EGD was 3/25 (12%). Among 25 patients, 14 underwent ESD and 11 underwent surgery. Mean operation time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the ESD group than the surgery group. There were no significant differences in terms of rates of en bloc resection, complete resection, and early complications. Late complications were more common in the surgery group than in the ESD group. The median follow-up duration was 58.9 months. Three- or 5-year overall survival rates were 100% for both groups and no patient died of EGC and GST. There was no local recurrence in the 2 groups; however, 3 metachronous EGC lesions were found during the follow-up period in the ESD group as follows: the simultaneous occurrence of GST and EGC was uncommon; the detection rate of concomitant GST and EGC was very low at the first EGD; and ESD appeared to be a safe, efficient, and popular treatment option for concomitant GST and EGC, that met the ESD absolute indication, and the outcomes were comparable to those achieved with surgery.
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain. Finally, we highlight new insights into how the microbiome influences the host response to infection, vaccination and cancer, as well as susceptibility to autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders.
Immune System Diseases (2), Oncology (1) Infections (2), Neoplasms (2), Neurodegenerative Diseases (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Although endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection has been used for the resection of esophageal and stomach neoplastic lesions, there are still no reports about large superficial rectal neoplastic lesions. Compared with esophageal and stomach endoscopic submucosal dissection, the dissection of large superficial rectal neoplastic lesions is more difficult because of the flimsy bowel wall with abundant vasculature in the submucosal region, which results in poor endoscopic maneuverability and serious complications, such as bleeding and perforation.
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection for large superficial rectal neoplastic lesions over 5 to 24 months in selected patients.
DESIGN: This was a prospective, single-center evaluation.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a digestive endoscopic center.
PATIENTS: Patients with large superficial rectal neoplastic lesions were included.
INTERVENTIONS: Endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection was performed in all of the patients with large, superficial rectal neoplastic lesions. The submucosal tunnel was created via a submucosal incision from the anal incision to the oral incision. Next, tunnel wall resection was performed to completely remove the lesion.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dissection speed, complications, and recurrence rate were measured.
RESULTS: A total of 19 patients, including 13 men and 6 women, with an average age of 60.1 ± 12.2 years (range, 34.0-75.0 y) underwent endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection. The average size of lesions was 17.54 ± 13.47 cm. The mean operative time was 84.84 ± 53.49 minutes, and the operating speed was 21.01 ± 9.00 mm/min. En bloc resections with negative basal margins were achieved in all cases without serious intraoperative complications. No recurrence was observed in any patient within 5 to 24 months after the operations.
LIMITATIONS: This was a single-center study.
CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection is feasible, safe, and effective for the treatment of large, superficial rectal neoplastic lesions in selected patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A321.
Adenoma (1), Adenocarcinoma (1), Rectal Neoplasms (1), more mentions