Abstract: Benign biliarydiseases include a large spectrum of congenital and acquired disorders, which have different prognosis and require different treatment management... Magnetic resonance (MR) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) sequences is the imaging modality of choice for biliarydiseases and has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, the use of a hepato-specific MR contrast agent allows morphological and functional ...
Sclerosing Cholangitis (2), Cholelithiasis (1), Pathologic Constriction (1), more mentions
... of different ACS models on the outcomes for appendicitis and biliarydisease.A systematic, English-language search of major databases was conducted ... studies that reported on outcomes for patients with appendicitis (13) biliarydisease (7) or both (5) before and after implementation of an ... -0.20) and 0.73 days (0.09-1.36 days) for appendicitis and biliarydisease respectively.
Occult pancreatobiliary reflux (PBR) in patients with a normal pancreatobiliary junction has been studied by various methods, but the exact etiology, mechanisms, and implications of this reflux have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of PBR and patterns of biliary ductal dilatation in patients with acute calculous cholangitis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).We retrospectively evaluated the degree of PBR and pattern of bile duct dilatation in patients with acute calculous cholangitis due to distal CBD (common bile duct) stones (Group A) as compared with patients with malignant CBD obstruction due to distal CBD cancer (Group B). All related data were prospectively collected. Bile juice was aspirated at the proximal CBD for measurement of biliary amylase and lipase before the injection of contrast dye. The diameters of the CBD and the peripheral intrahepatic duct (IHD) were calculated after contrast dye injection. Patients with pancreatobiliary maljunction and/or gallstone pancreatitis were excluded from the study.ERCP was performed on 33 patients with calculous cholangitis (Group A) and 12 patients with malignant CBD obstruction (Group B). Mean levels of bile amylase and lipase were significantly higher (P < .05) in group A (1387 and 6737 U/l, respectively) versus those in group B (32 and 138 U/l, respectively). Thirty patients in group A (90.9%) showed disproportionate dilatation (i.e., CBD was and IHD was not dilated), whereas only 4 patients in group B (33%) showed disproportionate dilatation.The results of this study suggest that patients with calculous cholangitis exhibit PBR that is associated with disproportionate bile duct dilatation.
Oncology (1) Cholangitis (4), Gallstones (2), Pancreatitis (1), more mentions
... the association between IOC and CBD injury during inpatient cholecystectomy for non-neoplastic biliarydisease and compare survival among those with or without CBD injury AbstractText: Retrospective study ... death (adjusted HR 1.37[1.25-1.51]) AbstractText: IOC in patients with non-neoplastic biliarydisease was associated with increased odds of CBD injury.
Cholangitis (1), Cholecystitis (1), Gallstones (1), more mentions
There is no consensus of treatments for acute acalculous cholecystitis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The study was aimed to investigate the effect of the corticosteroid for these patients.A series of patients who were diagnosed as acute acalculous cholecystitis with SLE in the period from January 2012 to December 2016 at our hospital were included. They accepted 2 different conservative treatment strategies initially: the treatment using moxifloxacin (the antibiotic group), and the treatment using corticosteroid combined moxifloxacin (the corticosteroid group). Then clinical manifestations, laboratory features, and outcomes were analyzed.The study identified 22 women Han Chinese patients with the SLE history of 2.8 ± 1.4 year. There was no significant difference in SLE history, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2000), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR), hematologic examination results, and corticosteroid dosage between 2 groups. And there was no significant difference in the symptom of acute cholecystitis, duration of the symptoms, white blood level, and the thickness of gallbladder wall between 2 groups either. However, the SLEDAI-2000 of the corticosteroid group was lower than that of the antibiotic group (7.3 ± 1.4 vs 10.7 ± 3.0, P = .03), so was the SLICC/ACR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs 0.3 ± 0.5, P = .01). Moreover, total 11 of 12 patients were successfully treated in the corticosteroid group, only 1 patient got cholecystectomy because no improvement after conservative treatment. While 4 of 10 patients were successfully treated by moxifloxacin alone, 6 patients had to accept cholecystectomy in the antibiotic group. The rate of successful conservative treatment in the corticosteroid group was higher than that of the antibiotic group (P = .02). All patients were followed up at least 6 months, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence of abdominal pain between 2 groups (P = .37).The corticosteroid plays an important role in the management of the acalculous cholecystitis patient with SLE, and it should be considered as a first line of treatment.
Infectious Diseases (5), Immune System Diseases (5), Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Acalculous Cholecystitis (5), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (3), Acute Cholecystitis (1), more mentions
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and relative risk of gallstones and associated disease in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Medical records of 311 patients diagnosed with UC between January 2004 and February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. To assess relative risk, 622 patients matched by age, sex, and body mass index were included as a control group. Gallstones were detected in 8% (25/311) of UC patients and in 3.9% (24/622) of the control group. Prevalence was significantly higher in the UC group (odds ratio [OR], 2.178; P = .007). Mean age of gallstone patients was 57.1 ± 17.8 years in the UC group, and mean disease duration of UC was 67.2 ± 38.8 months. The male-to-female ratio of gallstone patients in the UC group was 2.13:1. Mean interval from diagnosis of UC to detection of gallstones was 17.8 ± 30 months. Six UC patients with gallstones underwent cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for symptomatic disease and complications. In univariate analysis, diabetes, hypertension, age ≥65 years, and history of more than 3 admissions were significantly associated with gallstone in UC patients. In multivariate analysis, age ≥65 years (OR, 2.655; P = .033) and hospitalization ≥3 times (OR, 4.1; P = .001) were statistically significant risk factors for gallstones in UC patients. This study shows that UC patients have a significantly higher risk of gallstones compared to the general population (OR, 2.178; P = .007), especially those who are older, with a history of multiple admissions.
Cardiovascular Diseases (1), Endocrine Disorders (1), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1) Gallstones (11), Ulcerative Colitis (2), Colitis (1), more mentions
We investigated the possible link between liver cirrhosis and gallstone risk in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in China.To analyze the association between liver cirrhosis and gallstone development, we compared outcomes of 133 Chinese CHC patients with gallstones and an age-, sex-, and hepatitis C virus RNA level-matched control group of 431 CHC patients without gallstones.We found that liver cirrhosis was more prevalent in gallstone patients (40.6%) than in the control group (24.4%). Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development 2-fold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.122; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.408-3.198). Moreover, multivariate analyses comparing the risk of gallstone development in liver cirrhosis patients with decompensated or compensated liver cirrhosis yielded an estimated AOR (95% CI) of 2.869 (1.277-6.450) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Gallstone risk also increased significantly with older age (>60 years) (AOR: 2.019; 95% CI: 1.017-4.009).Liver cirrhosis significantly correlates with increased risk of gallstone development in CHC patients in China. Decompensated liver cirrhosis and older age further heighten this risk in patients diagnosed with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.
Infectious Diseases (5), Endocrine Disorders (1) Gallstones (12), Liver Cirrhosis (11), Hepatitis C (3), more mentions
Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare entity most closely associated with trauma to the biliary vasculature (usually iatrogenic) or inflammation from adjacent cholecystitis. Most cases are treated intraoperatively during cholecystectomy. We describe 3 cases of cystic artery pseudoaneurysms secondary to acute cholecystitis, 2 with active hemobilia, treated with transcatheter embolization at our institution.
False Aneurysm (3), Acute Cholecystitis (2), Hemobilia (1), more mentions
Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore, additional evaluation and refinement of the 2013 Guidelines is required. We describe a standard drainage method for surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis and the latest developed endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Our study confirmed that percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage should be considered the first alternative to surgical intervention in surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Also, endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage or endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage can be considered in high-volume institutes by skilled endoscopists. In the endoscopic transpapillary approach, either endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage or gallbladder stenting can be considered for gallbladder drainage. We also introduce special techniques and the latest outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE: Extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) resection is performed as part of radical cholecystectomy for gallbladder (GB) cancer. However, the indication for EHBD resection is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of this procedure.
METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical resection for GB cancer with curative intent were enrolled. We divided GB cancer into two categories based on the tumor location: proximal-type and distal-type tumors. The former refers to tumors involving the neck or cystic duct, while the latter comprises tumors located between the body and fundus.
RESULTS: This study included 80 patients, 40 each with proximal- and distal-type tumors. Proximal tumor location, lymph node metastasis, and a serum carcinoembryonic antigen level > 5.0 ng/mL were independent predictors of poor prognosis. The 5-year survival rates of patients with proximal-type and distal-type tumors were 33.3 and 73.5%, respectively. Patients with proximal-type tumors showed significantly lower rates of R0 resection, more frequently had ≥ 3 metastatic lymph nodes, and exhibited a higher rate of perineural invasion. EHBD resection improved prognoses only in patients with proximal-type tumors but not in those with distal-type tumors. In the former group, EHBD resection significantly reduced the rate of local or regional lymph node recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Extended cholecystectomy with EHBD resection should be performed for patients with GB cancer involving the neck and cystic duct to reduce local and regional lymph node recurrence and achieve better prognosis.
Oncology (8) Neoplasms (14), Gallbladder Neoplasms (2), more mentions
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to measure the performance of restricted diffusion of the pericholecystic hepatic parenchyma for distinguishing between acute and chronic cholecystitis.
METHODS: The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Two hundred sixty-six patients presenting with acute right upper quadrant pain between 10/3/2010 and 11/28/2012 undergoing MR within 48 h of equivocal utility of ultrasound (US) were included. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences (b = 0, 600 s/mm(2), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps) were reviewed and graded in a blinded fashion by two abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists for the presence of restricted diffusion in the pericholecystic hepatic parenchyma and the gallbladder wall. Sensitivity, specificity, and inter-observer agreement for individual imaging signs were calculated using surgical pathology as the reference standard for acute cholecystitis.
RESULTS: Of the 266 patients, 113 were treated conservatively and 153 underwent cholecystectomy. Restricted diffusion of the pericholecystic hepatic parenchyma showed low sensitivity (reviewer 1, 40%; reviewer 2, 30%) and moderately high specificity (reviewer 1, 84%; reviewer 2, 75%) for distinguishing acute and chronic cholecystitis. Restricted diffusion in the gallbladder wall showed low sensitivity (reviewer 1, 30%; reviewer 2, 7%) and high specificity (reviewer 1, 93%; reviewer 2, 97%) for distinguishing acute and chronic cholecystitis.
CONCLUSION: Diffusion-weighted imaging of the pericholecystic hepatic parenchyma shows moderately high specificity for distinguishing between acute and chronic cholecystitis.
OBJECTIVE: Further research is needed to understand how pain frequency, localization of pain and the patient's conviction of the cause of pain effects long-term outcome after gallstone surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study was conducted based on patients evaluated with SF-36 along with three single-items focusing on gallstone specific symptoms. The physical component summary (PCS) and bodily pain (BP) of SF-36 were used as main outcome measures. To assess the improvement from the procedure, the differences between the preoperative and postoperative ratings were tested with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The ratings on the single-items regarding pain frequency, pain localization and patient's conviction of the cause of pain were used as predictors. In the multivariate analysis, adjustment was made for age, gender and approach. The study was approved by the Swedish Ethics Committee, Dnr 2015/115.
RESULTS: The study group was based on 4021 patients who responded to the questionnaire SF-36 and the three gallstone specific items preoperatively. A total of 2216 (55.1%) patients also responded postoperatively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis the frequency of the pain attacks and the patient's conviction of the origin of pain significantly predicted postoperative pain as well as PCS of SF-36 (all p < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative frequency of pain attacks and the patient's conviction of the cause of pain can predict the outcome regarding PCS and the subscale BP of SF-36 with significantly better ratings in patients with a pain frequency exceeding once per month and in patients convinced of having pain related to gallstones.
Bile duct stenting remains the clinical mainstay for establishing biliary drainage in malignant or benign strictures with successful and stable deep guidewire passage as the sine qua non. Duodenal loop formation of an effectively inserted guidewire may occur occasionally and threatens the procedural success in day-to-day ERC practice, which may even be more troublesome after cumbersome guidewire passage in the first place. Attempts to rescue wire positioning often fail, since the wire is typically in a dead angle with a tendency to completely slip out of postion no matter how the scope or cannula is navigated. Here, I present an easy-to-implement novel approach for duodenal guidewire unlooping, dubbed the "biopsy-forceps-fixation technique". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE: To test the diagnostic performance of elevated peak systolic hepatic arterial velocity (HAv) in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.
METHODS: 229 patients with an ultrasound (US) performed for right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain were retrospectively reviewed. 35 had cholecystectomy within 10 days of ultrasound and were included as test subjects. 47 had normal US and serology and were included as controls. Each test patient US was reviewed for the presence of gallstones, gallbladder distention, sludge, echogenic pericholecystic fat, pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening, gallbladder wall hyperemia, and reported sonographic Murphy sign. Demographic, clinical, and hepatic artery parameters at time of original imaging were recorded. Acute cholecystitis at pathology was the primary outcome variable.
RESULTS: 21 patients had acute cholecystitis and 14 had chronic cholecystitis by pathology. For patients who went to cholecystectomy, HAv ≥100 cm/s to diagnose acute cholecystitis was more accurate (69%) than the original radiology report (63%), the presence of gallstones (51%), and sonographic Murphy sign (50%). Statistically significant predictors of acute cholecystitis included HAv ≥100 cm/s (p = 0.008), older age (p = 0.012), and elevated WBC (p = 0.002), while gallstones (p = 0.077), hepatic artery resistive index (HARI) (p = 0.199), gallbladder distension (p = 0.252), sludge (p = 0.147), echogenic fat (p = 0.184), pericholecystic fluid (p = 0.357), wall thickening (p = 0.434), hyperemia (p = 0.999), and sonographic Murphy sign (p = 0.765) were not significantly correlated with acute cholecystitis compared to chronic cholecystitis.
CONCLUSION: HAv ≥100 cm/s is a useful objective parameter that may improve the performance of US in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.
Acute Cholecystitis (9), Gallstones (3), Hyperemia (2), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, rates of common bile duct injury remain higher than previously observed in open cholecystectomy. This retrospective chart review sought to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy within a high-volume healthcare system.
METHODS: 800 of approximately 3000 cases between 2009 and 2015 were randomly selected and retrospectively reviewed. A single reviewer examined all operative notes, thereby including all cases of BDI regardless of ICD code or need for a second procedure. Biliary injuries were classified per Strasberg et al. (J Am Coll Surg 180:101-125, 1995). Logistic regression models were utilized to identify univariable and multivariable predictors of biliary injuries.
RESULTS: 31.0% of charts stated that the Critical View of Safety was obtained, and 12.4% of charts correctly described the critical view in detail. Three patients (0.4%) had a cystic duct leak, and 4 (0.5%) had a common bile duct injury. Of the four CBDI, three patients had a partial transection of the CBD and one had a partial stricture. Patients who suffered BDI were more likely to have had lower hemoglobin, urgent surgery, choledocholithiasis, or acutely inflamed gallbladder. Multivariable analysis of BDI risk factors showed higher preoperative hemoglobin to be independently protective against CBDI. Acutely inflamed gallbladder and choledocholithiasis were independently predictive of CBDI.
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of CBDI in this study was 0.5%. Acutely inflamed conditions were risk factors for biliary injury. Multivariable analysis suggests a protective effect of higher preoperative hemoglobin. There was no correlation of CVS with prevention of biliary injury, although only 12.4% of charts could be verified as following the technique correctly. Better implementation of CVS, and increased caution in patients with perioperative inflammatory signs, may be important for preventing bile duct injury. Additionally, counseling patients with acute inflammation on increased risk is important.
Choledocholithiasis (2), Pathologic Constriction (1), more mentions