DescriptorName: GallbladderDiseases... AbstractText: In this article, we report the current surgical approach to gallbladderdisease at a major referral hospital in rural Guatemala. Complications in a cohort of patients undergoing open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy were catalogued AbstractText: We reviewed cholecystectomies performed by surgeons at the Hospital Nacional de San Benito in El Peten, Guatemala, after the adoption of the ...
BACKGROUND: Hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation is a devastating complication associated with ischemic cholangiopathy that can occur even after successful revascularization. This study explores long-term outcomes after hepatic artery thrombosis in adult liver transplantation recipients, focusing on the probability, risk factors, and resolution of ischemic cholangiopathy.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 1,783 consecutive adult liver transplantations performed between 1995 and 2014 identified 44 cases of hepatic artery thrombosis (2.6%); 10 patients underwent immediate retransplantation, and 34 patients received nontransplant treatments, involving revascularization (n = 19) or expectant nonrevascularization management (n = 15).
RESULTS: The 1-year graft survival after nontransplant treatment was favorable (82%); however, 16 of the 34 patients who received a nontransplant treatment developed ischemic cholangiopathy and required long-term biliary intervention. A Cox regression model showed that increased serum transaminase and bilirubin levels at the time of hepatic artery thrombosis diagnosis, but not nonrevascularization treatment versus revascularization, were risk factors for the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. Ischemic cholangiopathy in revascularized grafts was less extensive with a greater likelihood of resolution within 5-years than that in nonrevascularized grafts (100% vs 17%). Most liver abscesses without signs of liver failure also were reversible. Salvage retransplantation after a nontransplant treatment was performed in 8 patients with a 1-year survival rate equivalent to immediate retransplantation (88% vs 80%).
CONCLUSION: Selective nontransplant treatments for hepatic artery thrombosis resulted in favorable graft survival. Biliary intervention can resolve liver abscess and ischemic cholangiopathy that developed in revascularized grafts in the long-term; salvage retransplantation should be considered for ischemic cholangiopathy in nonrevascularized grafts because of a poor chance of resolution.
Thrombosis (7), Liver Failure (2), Liver Abscesses (2), more mentions
... in primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) in comparison with non-malignant gallbladderdisease AbstractText: CDO1 DNA methylation was quantified using quantitative TaqMan methylation ... with the 78 corresponding non-tumor tissues and 26 benign gallbladderdisease (including 7 patients with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis) who underwent surgical resection ... p < .0001) and diseased gallbladder tissues from patients with benign gallbladderdiseases (average 0.98±1.6, p < .0001.
... of different ACS models on the outcomes for appendicitis and biliarydisease AbstractText: A systematic, English-language search of major databases was ... that reported on outcomes for patients with appendicitis (n = 13), biliarydisease (n = 7), or both (n = 5), before and after implementation ... days (95% CI 0.09 to 1.36 days) for appendicitis and biliarydisease, respectively.
Occult pancreatobiliary reflux (PBR) in patients with a normal pancreatobiliary junction has been studied by various methods, but the exact etiology, mechanisms, and implications of this reflux have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of PBR and patterns of biliary ductal dilatation in patients with acute calculous cholangitis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).We retrospectively evaluated the degree of PBR and pattern of bile duct dilatation in patients with acute calculous cholangitis due to distal CBD (common bile duct) stones (Group A) as compared with patients with malignant CBD obstruction due to distal CBD cancer (Group B). All related data were prospectively collected. Bile juice was aspirated at the proximal CBD for measurement of biliary amylase and lipase before the injection of contrast dye. The diameters of the CBD and the peripheral intrahepatic duct (IHD) were calculated after contrast dye injection. Patients with pancreatobiliary maljunction and/or gallstone pancreatitis were excluded from the study.ERCP was performed on 33 patients with calculous cholangitis (Group A) and 12 patients with malignant CBD obstruction (Group B). Mean levels of bile amylase and lipase were significantly higher (P < .05) in group A (1387 and 6737 U/l, respectively) versus those in group B (32 and 138 U/l, respectively). Thirty patients in group A (90.9%) showed disproportionate dilatation (i.e., CBD was and IHD was not dilated), whereas only 4 patients in group B (33%) showed disproportionate dilatation.The results of this study suggest that patients with calculous cholangitis exhibit PBR that is associated with disproportionate bile duct dilatation.
Oncology (1) Cholangitis (4), Gallstones (2), Pancreatitis (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Patient-provider communication (PPC) is utilized as a value-based metric in pay-for-performance programs. We sought to evaluate the association of PPC with patient-reported health outcomes, as well as healthcare resource utilization among a nationally representative cohort of patients with hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) diagnoses.
METHODS: Patients with HPB diseases were identified from the 2008-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey cohort. A weighted PPC composite score was categorized using the responses from the CAHPS (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) survey as optimal, average, or poor. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression.
RESULTS: Among 1951 adult-patients, representing 21.7 million HPB patients, reported PPC was optimal (33.4%), average (46.3%), or poor (15.3%). Patients who were older and patients with low income were more likely to report poor PPC (both p < 0.05). Statin use, a quality of care measure, was associated with optimal PPC (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.10-2.64; p = 0.01). In contrast, patients who reported poor PPC were more likely to have a poor physical (20.8%) or mental (8.8%) health component on their SF12 (both p < 0.05). Furthermore, patients with poor PPC were more likely to report poor mental status (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.60-5.52), as well as higher emergency department visits (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.25-3.05) and hospitalizations (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.02-3.55) (both p < 0.05). Reported PPC was not associated with differences in overall healthcare expenditures or out-of-pocket expenditures.
CONCLUSIONS: PPC was associated with a wide spectrum of patient-specific demographic and health utilization factors. Self-reported patient satisfaction with provider communication may be impacted by other considerations than simply the patient-provider interaction.
Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree and highly expresses CD147, which is closely related to disease prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Doxycycline exhibited anti-tumor properties in many cancer cells. CD147 antagonist peptide-9 is a polypeptide and can specifically bind to CD147. The effect of these two drugs on gallbladder cancer cells has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells and the possible mechanism of inhibition on cancer cell of doxycycline. To investigate the effects of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells (GBC-SD and SGC-996), cell proliferation, CD147 expression, and early-stage apoptosis rate were measured after treated with doxycycline. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were measured after treated with different concentrations of doxycycline, antagonist peptide-9, and their combination. The results demonstrated that doxycycline inhibited cell proliferation, reduced CD147 expression level, and induced an early-stage apoptosis response in GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells. The matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were inhibited by antagonist peptide-9 and doxycycline, and the inhibitory effects were enhanced by combined drugs in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, doxycycline showed inhibitory effects on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines and reduced the expression of CD147, and this may be the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibits cancer cells. This study provides new information and tries to implement the design of adjuvant therapy method for gallbladder carcinoma.
Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (PTGBD+LC) is one treatment option for patients with moderate to severe acute cholecystitis (AC). However, the impact of PTGBD on operative difficulties in performing LC is controversial. We designed this retrospective study to clarify the surgical outcomes after PTGBD+LC for the management of patients with moderate to severe AC.The medical records of 85 patients who underwent LC for moderate to severe AC from January 2013 to September 2016 were evaluated. They were divided into 2 groups based on the type of management: group A received PTGBD+LC, and group B received LC without drainage. We compared the patient characteristics, laboratory data which were obtained immediately before surgery or PTGBD at index admission, and surgical outcomes between the 2 groups. We also evaluated possible predictive factors associated with prolonged operative duration after PTGBD+LC.Patients in group A were older and had more comorbidities than those in group B. The laboratory tests obtained at index admission in group A showed higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and alkaline phosphatase, and lower albumin levels than those in group B. The surgical outcomes after LC were similar between the 2 groups. However, operative duration was significantly shorter in group A (P = .012). In group A, a higher serum level of CRP was a predictive factor for a prolonged operation (hazard ratio 1.126; 95% confidence interval 1.012-1.253; P = .029). In conclusion, PTGBD+LC can shorten the operative duration in patients with moderate to severe AC, which might improve surgical outcomes in elderly patients with comorbidities, and elevated CRP values predicted a prolonged operation after PTGBD.
BACKGROUND: Patients managed nonoperatively have been excluded from risk-adjusted benchmarking programs, including the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Consequently, optimal performance evaluation is not possible for specialties like emergency general surgery (EGS) where nonoperative management is common. We developed a multi-institutional EGS clinical data registry within ACS NSQIP that includes patients managed nonoperatively to evaluate variability in nonoperative care across hospitals and identify gaps in performance assessment that occur when only operative cases are considered.
METHODS: Using ACS NSQIP infrastructure and methodology, surgical consultations for acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, and small bowel obstruction (SBO) were sampled at 13 hospitals that volunteered to participate in the EGS clinical data registry. Standard NSQIP variables and 16 EGS-specific variables were abstracted with 30-day follow-up. To determine the influence of complications in nonoperative patients, rates of adverse outcomes were identified, and hospitals were ranked by performance with and then without including nonoperative cases.
RESULTS: Two thousand ninety-one patients with EGS diagnoses were included, 46.6% with appendicitis, 24.3% with cholecystitis, and 29.1% with SBO. The overall rate of nonoperative management was 27.4%, 6.6% for appendicitis, 16.5% for cholecystitis, and 69.9% for SBO. Despite comprising only 27.4% of patients in the EGS pilot, nonoperative management accounted for 67.7% of deaths, 34.3% of serious morbidities, and 41.8% of hospital readmissions. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital diagnosis mix, addition of nonoperative management to hospital performance assessment resulted in 12 of 13 hospitals changing performance rank, with four hospitals changing by three or more positions.
CONCLUSION: This study identifies a gap in performance evaluation when nonoperative patients are excluded from surgical quality assessment and demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating nonoperative care into existing surgical quality initiatives. Broadening the scope of hospital performance assessment to include nonoperative management creates an opportunity to improve the care of all surgical patients, not just those who have an operation.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Care management, level IV; Epidemiologic, level III.
Appendicitis (4), Cholecystitis (3), Acute Cholecystitis (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic transpapillary or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided stent placement is used for nonresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with duodenal obstruction.
METHODS: We included consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic biliary drainage combined with a duodenal stent at 16 referral centers in four Asian countries. The primary outcome was time to recurrent biliary obstruction (TRBO). We assessed TRBO according to the sequence of biliary and duodenal obstruction (group 1/2/3, biliary obstruction first/concurrent/duodenal obstruction first, respectively) or the location of duodenal obstruction (type I/II/III, proximal to/affecting/distal to the ampulla, respectively). We also evaluated functional success and adverse events.
RESULTS: We included 110 patients (group1/2/3, 67/29/14 patients; type I/II/III, 45/46/19 patients; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [ERCP]/EUS-guided choledocoduodenostomy/EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, 90/10/10 patients, respectively). The median TRBO of all cases was 450 days (interquartile range, 212-666 days) and functional success was achieved in 105 cases (95%). The TRBO did not differ significantly by the timing or location of duodenal obstruction (p = .30 and .79, respectively). The TRBO of metal stents (n = 96) tended to be longer compared with plastic stents (n = 14, p = .083). Compared with ERCP, EUS-guided biliary drainage was associated with a higher rate of adverse events.
CONCLUSION: Transpapillary or transmural endoscopic biliary drainage with a duodenal stent was effective, irrespective of the timing or location of duodenal obstruction. A prospective study is required considering the tradeoff of technical success rate, stent patency, and adverse events (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02376907).
Advances in technology have made possible the clinical application of magnetic resonance cholangiography, endoscopic, intra-operative and laparoscopic ultrasound in the study of the biliary tree, in addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging and transabdominal ultrasound. The role of the conventional, as well as the newer techniques, in the diagnosis of bile duct disease and the limitations and pros and cons of each technique, will be the subject of the present discussion.
OBJECTIVES: Separate-session endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the usual method for management of inpatient choledocholithiasis. Our goal was to compare single operative-session LC and ERCP to a multi-session approach for both the same hospitalization and within 30 days after; there is limited data comparing the three groups.
METHODS: A retrospective review on inpatients with choledocholithiasis that underwent ERCP and LC was performed. Single operative-session ERCP + LC (SOS group) and separate hospitalization ERCP + LC (DH group) were compared against the control cohort: separate-session ERCP + LC performed during the same hospitalization (SH group).
RESULTS: Among the 214 cases, 37 (17%) had LC + ERCP performed under a single operative session (SOS), 130 (60.7%) cases had LC + ERCP performed in separate operative sessions during the same hospitalization (SH), and 47 (22%) cases had LC + ERCP performed in different hospitalizations, within 30 days (DH). There was no statistically significant difference in efficacy or adverse events. The SOS group had a statistically significant mean shorter length of hospital stay as compared to the SH and DH groups (5.46 vs 7.15 vs 9.38; p = 0.05 and 0.02). There was a statistically significant reduction in the total cost of care in the SOS group versus the SH group ($59,221 vs $75, 808; p = 0.007).
CONCLUSION: The SOS approach is safe, efficacious, and cost-efficient when compared to separate operative sessions. This approach can be considered in situations where it is preferable for the patient to undergo a single session of anesthesia, without compromising technical success and safety.
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic bile duct injury (BDI) is a common complication after cholecystectomy. Patients are mainly treated endoscopically, but the optimal treatment method has remained unclear.
AIMS: The aim was to analyze endoscopic treatment in BDI after cholecystectomy and to explore endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), with or without stenting, as the primary treatment for an Amsterdam type A bile leak.
METHODS: All patients referred to Helsinki University Hospital endoscopy unit due to a suspected BDI between the years 2004 and 2014 were included in this retrospective study. To collect the data, all ERC reports were reviewed.
RESULTS: Of the 99 BDI patients, 94 (95%) had bile leak of whom 11 had concomitant stricture. Ninety-three percent of all patients were treated endoscopically. Seventy-one patients had native papillae and a leak in the cystic duct or peripheral radicals. They were treated with ES (ES group, n = 50) or with sphincterotomy and stenting (EST group, n = 21). There was no difference between the closure time of the fistula (p = 0.179), in the time of discharge from hospital (p = 0.298), or in the primary healing rate between the ES group and the EST group (45/50 vs 19/21 patients, p = 0.951).
CONCLUSION: After the right patient selection, the success rate of endoscopic treatment can approach 100% for Amsterdam type A bile leak. ES is an effective and cost-effective single procedure with success rate similar to EST. It may be considered as a first-line therapy for the management of Amsterdam type A leaks.
Studies have reported that cholecystectomy may increase the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. However, this association is controversial. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between cholecystectomy and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science published before February 2017. We used the random effects model proposed by DerSimonian and Laird to quantify the relationship between cholecystectomy and risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to validate the stability of the results. 16 articles, comprising 220,376 patients with cholecystectomy and 562,392 healthy controls, were included in our research. Our meta-analysis suggested that the risk of cholangiocarcinoma was significantly higher in the cholecystectomized patients in comparison with healthy controls, with heterogeneity among studies (summary odds ratio [OR] = 0.72; confidence interval [CI] = 0.55-0.90; I(2) = 69.5%). Additionally, this association was also observed in cohort studies (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.73-0.94) and case-control studies (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.40-0.80). However, When the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were analyzed separately, the present study only indicated cholecystectomy was associated with increased the risk of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.32-2.05), rather than intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.32-2.05). In conclusion, cholecystectomy was associated with a significant 54% increase in the risk of cholangiocarcinoma, especially in the extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
The initial management of patients with suspected acute biliary infection starts with the measurement of vital signs to assess whether or not the situation is urgent. If the case is judged to be urgent, initial medical treatment should be started immediately including respiratory/circulatory management if required, without waiting for the definitive diagnosis. The patient's medical history is then taken; an abdominal examination is performed; blood tests, urinalysis, and diagnostic imaging are carried out; and a diagnosis is made using the diagnostic criteria for cholangitis/cholecystitis. Once the diagnosis has been confirmed, initial medical treatment should be started immediately, severity should be assessed according to the severity grading criteria for acute cholangitis/cholecystitis, and the patient's general status should be evaluated. For mild acute cholangitis, in most cases initial treatment including antibiotics is sufficient, and most patients do not require biliary drainage. However, biliary drainage should be considered if a patient does not respond to initial treatment. For moderate acute cholangitis, early endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is indicated. If the underlying etiology requires treatment, this should be provided after the patient's general condition has improved; endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and subsequent choledocholithotomy may be performed together with biliary drainage. For severe acute cholangitis, appropriate respiratory/circulatory management is required. Biliary drainage should be performed as soon as possible after the patient's general condition has been improved by initial treatment and respiratory/circulatory management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury (BDI) remains the most dreaded complication following cholecystectomy with serious repercussions for the surgeon, patient and entire healthcare system. In the absence of registries, the true incidence of BDI in the United States remains unknown. We aim to identify the incidence of BDI requiring operative intervention and overall complications after cholecystectomy.
METHODS: Utilizing the Truven Marketscan(®) research database, 554,806 patients who underwent cholecystectomy in calendar years 2011-2014 were identified using ICD-9 procedure and diagnosis codes. The final study population consisted of 319,184 patients with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment and who met inclusion criteria. Patients were tracked for BDI and other complications. Hospital cost information was obtained from 2015 Premier data.
RESULTS: Of the 319,184 patients who were included in the study, there were a total of 741 (0.23%) BDI identified requiring operative intervention. The majority of injuries were identified at the time of the index procedure (n = 533, 72.9%), with 102 (13.8%) identified within 30-days of surgery and the remainder (n = 106, 14.3%) between 31 and 365 days. The operative cumulative complication rate within 30 days of surgery was 9.84%. The most common complications occurring at the index procedure were intestinal disorders (1.2%), infectious (1%), and shock (0.8%). The most common complications identified within 30-days of surgery included infection (1.5%), intestinal disorders (0.7%) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (0.7%) for cumulative rates of infection, intestinal disorders, shock, and SIRS of 2.0, 1.9, 1.0, and 0.8%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: BDI rate requiring operative intervention have plateaued and remains at 0.23% despite increased experience with laparoscopy. Moreover, cholecystectomy is associated with a 9.84% 30-day morbidity rate. A clear opportunity is identified to improve the quality and safety of this operation. Continued attention to educational programs and techniques aimed at reducing patient harm and improving surgeon skill are imperative.
Infections (2), Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of cholecystectomy on mitigating recurrent biliary complications following endoscopic treatment of common bile duct stone.
METHODS: We used the data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to conduct a population-based cohort study. Among 925 patients who received endoscopic treatment for choledocholithiasis at the first admission from 2005 to 2012, 422 received subsequent cholecystectomy and 503 had gallbladder (GB) left in situ. After propensity score matching with 1:1 ratio, the cumulative incidence of recurrent biliary complication and overall survival was analyzed with Cox's proportional hazards model. The primary endpoint of this study is recurrent biliary complications, which require intervention.
RESULTS: After matching, 378 pairs of patients were identified with a median follow-up time of 53 (1-108) months. The recurrent rate of biliary complications was 8.20% in the cholecystectomy group and 24.87% in the GB in situ group (p < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, the only independent risk factor for recurrent biliary complications was GB left in situ (hazard ratio [HR] 3.55, 95% CI 2.36-5.33).
CONCLUSIONS: Cholecystectomy after endoscopic treatment of common bile duct stone reduced the prevalence of recurrent biliary complications.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are becoming a standard therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer in the advanced stage. As these ICIs become widely available in clinical practice, immune-related adverse effects will become more common. Here we report a patient with lung adenocarcinoma who was treated with nivolumab and developed obstruction because of biliary inflammation. A 63-year-old Japanese man having lung adenocarcinoma with pleural dissemination complained of epigastric pain on the fifth cycle of nivolumab. Computed tomography showed wall thickening at the lower part of the bile duct and cholecystitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was repeatedly performed for drainage and stenting of the bile duct. Biopsies did not show obvious malignancy. Laboratory data on day 85 demonstrated grade 3 elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, transaminase, and amylase levels. We initiated high-dose oral prednisone, resulting in gradual improvement of symptoms and laboratory data. Follow-up magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated no progression of duct obstruction, which confirmed the absence of biliary malignancy. Combined with results from previous reports, nivolumab may cause extrahepatic cholangitis.
Oncology (2) Adenocarcinoma (2), Lung Neoplasms (2), Bile Duct Obstruction (1), more mentions