There are various anesthetic techniques for awake craniotomy (AC), including asleep-awake-asleep technique, monitoredanesthesia care, and the recent introduced awake-awake-awake method. We describe our first experience with anesthetic management for awake craniotomy, which was a combination of these techniques with scalp nerve block, and propofol/rémifentanil target controlled infusion.
INTRODUCTION: The admission of high-risk patients to critical care after surgery is a recommended standard of care. Nevertheless, poor compliance against this recommendation has been repeatedly demonstrated in large epidemiological studies. It is unclear whether this is due to reasons of capacity, equipoise, poor quality clinical care or because hospitals are working creatively to create capacity for augmented care on normal surgical wards. The EPIdemiology of Critical Care after Surgery study aims to address these uncertainties.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: One-week observational cohort study in the UK and Australasia. All patients undergoing inpatient (overnight stay) surgery will be included. All will have prospective data collection on risk factors, surgical procedure and postoperative outcomes including the primary outcome of morbidity (measured using the Postoperative Morbidity Survey on day 7 after surgery) and secondary outcomes including length of stay and mortality. Data will also be collected on critical care referral and admission, surgical cancellations and critical care occupancy. The epidemiology of patient characteristics, processes and outcomes will be described. Inferential techniques (multilevel multivariable regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analysis) will be used to evaluate the relationship between critical care admission and postoperative outcome.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from the National Research Ethics Service in the UK and equivalent in Australasia. The collection of patient identifiable data without prior consent has been approved by the Confidentiality Advisory Group (England and Wales) and the Public Privacy and Patient Benefit Panel (Scotland). In these countries, patient identifiable data will be used to link prospectively collected data with national registers of death and inpatient administrative data. The study findings will be disseminated using a multimedia approach with the support of our lay collaborators, to patients, public, policy-makers, clinical and academic audiences.
... of Anesthesiologists was established; in 1960, "Anesthesiology" was accredited by Japanese government as an officially approved medical specialty; and in 1963, board examinations were established to be an instructor of anesthesia. In 2011, the Japanese Museum of Anesthesiology opened in Kobe, with the mission to collect and preserve literature and equipment related to the history of Japanese anesthesia (Figure 1.
We present a case of a patient with complete tracheal dehiscence and multiple false passages after recent tracheal resection and anastomosis. Loss of tracheal continuity after disruption of anastomosis with distal stump retraction presents a unique anesthetic challenge given lack of access to the trachea and the need for adequate anesthesia and analgesia for surgical neck dissection. Traditional airwaymanagement, including awake fiberoptic intubation, intubation via direct laryngoscopy, needle cricothyrotomy, and awake tracheostomy are not viable options. Using total intravenous anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation, surgeons dissected the neck, retrieved the distal tracheal stump, repaired the trachea, and formalized the tracheostomy. We highlight the importance of recognizing the symptoms of a tracheal rupture, understanding the extreme limitation of securing the airway with traditional techniques, and discuss the alternative techniques including use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to avoid airway management. Awareness of increased mortality risk with tracheal reoperation and the significance of close communication between the anesthesiologists, the surgeons, and the patient is necessary for successful management.
BACKGROUND: Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperpyrexia, anhidrosis, pain insensitivity, self-inflicted injuries, and intellectual disability. The anesthetic management of these patients is challenging owing to the high risk of perioperative complications resulting from their autonomic dysfunction, such as hyperthermia, hypotension, and bradycardia, which result from autonomic nervous system dysfunction.
CASE PRESENTATION: Two 3-year-old Han Chinese identical male twins (weighing 13.5 kg and measuring 93 cm tall) were previously diagnosed as having congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis based on clinical features and genetic screening. According to the presence of loud snoring and heavy breathing during sleep and neck radiograph findings, they were diagnosed as having tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy and needed adenotonsillectomy. Because of innate analgesia, some reports suggested that patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis do not require perioperative pain control. Accordingly, our patients did not receive opiates. We describe the general anesthetic management of these patients using sevoflurane and propofol, but without opiates, for adenotonsillectomy. Remarkable tachycardia and hypertension occurred during airway manipulation and when the surgical stimuli increased, and their temperatures increased from 36 °C and 36.8 °C to 37.8 °C and 38.5 °C, respectively. Patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis lack pain sensation, but they may have tactile hyperesthesia. Surgical noxious stimuli may therefore produce a stress response and unpleasant sensations, leading to hemodynamic fluctuation and temperature increase.
CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, we suggest that careful intraoperative opiate titration may be justified to blunt the surgical stress response and promote hemodynamic and temperature stability in similar patients; we also recommend the preparation of warming and cooling devices and continuous temperature monitoring in these patients. Since anesthetic management of these patients is not simple, careful attention is required.
Cardiovascular Diseases (1) HSAN Type IV (5), Hypertrophy (1), Bradycardia (1), more mentions
The anaesthesiologist in charge of the procedure was physically present in the hospital in 55.3. There was large inter-hospital variability in non-standard monitoring and type of anaesthesia. The most important criterion for selecting type of anaesthesia was multidisciplinary choice made by the anaesthesiologist, neurologist and neuroradiologist (59.3. The duration of time from arrival to arterial puncture was 10 ...
The aim of this study was to compare the Entropy and Surgical Pleth Index (SPI)-guided general anaesthesia with standard haemodynamic monitoring methods used in the critically ill polytrauma patients and to evaluate the incidence of hemodynamic events, as well as the opioid and vasopressor demand. 72 patients were included in this prospective observational study, divided in two groups, the ...
... test the causality in patients undergoing brain tumour resection.DEPTH is a multicenter, randomised, parallel-group, blind trial. The depth of general anaesthesia will be monitored using the bispectral index (BIS. Patients elected for supratentorial tumour resection will be randomly allocated to the deep or the light anaesthesia group in which the target BIS value is 35 or 50, respectively.
Receiver operating characteristic curve fitting was used to determine cut-off values for hypoxia, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and hypotension for dichotomous decision-making. Applying these cut-off values, there was reasonable sensitivity for detection of hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and hypotension, but not for hypoxemia. Noninvasive anestheticmonitoring should be interpreted with caution in giraffes and, ideally, invasive monitoring should be employed.
To determine the necessary mean infusion rate of propofol during combined nitrous oxide (N2O) and propofol spinal anesthesia by using the processed electroencephalogram (pEEG).Twelve elective gynecological patients were monitored by a Dräger pEEG monitor under N2O and propofol spinal anesthesia. To make it easier to detect an inadequate depth of anesthesia, muscle relaxants were not given and the patients ...
Introduction Dental injury is the most common incident associated with anaesthesia. Regarding recent recommendations on informed consent and changes in airwaymanagement practices, a large series of claims related to dental injury has not been recently described. The aim of this study was to analyse a recent database in order to describe the characteristics of dental injury in France. Methods A database that prospectively collected claims reported to Le Sou Médical-MACSF between January 2003 and December 2010, was analysed. 592 cases were reported. The following characteristics were analysed: number and type of teeth injured, mechanism of injury, anaesthetic procedure, risk factors and dental outcome after injury. Results Amongst the 1514 claims related to anaesthesia, 592 (39.2%) were classified as dental damage. Preoperative informed consent concerning possible perioperative dental injury was documented in only 34.8% of patients. Only one tooth was affected in 65.2% of patients, dental bridge injury in 12.8% of cases and damage to two or more teeth in 14% of patients. Incisors were involved in 50% of cases. Fracture was the most common type of injury (64.2%). Poor dentition was the most common risk factor (23.1%) followed by difficult intubation (15.4%). Both risks were combined in only 7.6% of cases. Tracheal intubation was the highest risk procedure (41.6%). Conclusion Dental injury remains the most common anaesthesia-related claim. Dental examination and documentation in patient medical files requires improvement and better informed consent on dental injury risk needs to be provided to patients.
Its safety and efficacy has been demonstrated in various studies and technical equipment such as the anaesthetic conserving device (AnaConDa™; Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden) or the MIRUS™ system (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany) have significantly simplified the application of volatile anesthetics in the ICU. However, the personnel's exposure to waste anesthetic gas during daily work is possibly disadvantageous, because there is ...
Among 112 lawsuits which involved the use of anesthesia, 64 were analyzed as to the person primarily responsible for administering the anesthesia, the types of anesthesia, the details of major mishaps, and intraoperative monitoring. Of particular note was a large number of deaths from cardiac arrest and hypotension in spinal anesthesia administered by non-anesthesiologists.
One-lung anesthesia presents many practical, anatomical, and physiological challenges to the anesthetist in modern day practice. The techniques and equipment that we use today have developed slowly over the course of the last century. The idea of isolated lung ventilation came from bronchospirometry studies by pioneering physiologists as early as 1871, and some of their original equipment was adapted for clinical use in the 1930s. Anesthetic techniques have generally been developed to facilitate surgical advances, and the development of double-lumen tubes is no exception. The development of the double-lumen tube was sporadic and occurred mainly to allow more complex thoracic procedures, mostly associated with suppurative lung disease. Once the need for independent ventilation of the lungs was identified in clinical practice, pioneers of the technique developed their own methods and often their own equipment. This led to the ability of the anesthetist to be able to control ventilation to each lung, including collapse of the operative lung and protection of the isolated lung against contamination. As these anesthetics became more reliable, the surgical scope for one-lung anesthesia began to broaden, and today one-lung ventilation is used to facilitate thoracic surgery, mainly on the lung, but also esophageal, thoracic wall, and mediastinal surgical procedures.
AbstractText: Use of monitoredanesthesia care (MAC) for gastrointestinal endoscopy has increased in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), as in fee-for-service environments, despite the absence of financial incentives... Keyword: monitoredanesthesia care. Keyword: sedation.
Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (1), Obesity (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation has been associated with an increased incidence of medical errors and can jeopardise patients' safety during medical crisis management. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sleep deprivation on the management of simulated anaesthesia crisis by residents in anaesthesiology.
METHODS: A randomised, comparative, monocentric crossover study involving 48 residents in anaesthesia was performed on a high fidelity patient simulator. Each resident was evaluated in a sleep deprived state (Deprived group, after a night shift duty) and control state (Control group, after a night of sleep). Performance was assessed through points obtained during crisis scenario 1 (oesophageal intubation followed by anaphylactic shock) and scenario 2 (anaesthesia-related bronchospasm followed by ventricular tachycardia). Sleep periods were recorded by actigraphy. Two independent observers assessed the performances. The primary endpoint of the study was the score obtained for each scenario.
RESULTS: Resident's crisis management performance is associated with sleep deprivation (Scenario 1: Control=39 [33-42] points vs Deprived=26 [19-40] points, p=0.02; scenario 2: Control= 21 [17-24] vs Deprived= 14 [12-19], p=0.01). The main errors observed were: error in drug administration and dose, delay in identification of hypotension, and missing communication with the surgical team about situation.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that sleep deprivation is associated with impairment of performance to manage crisis situations by residents in anesthesia.
Sleep Deprivation (5), Tachycardia (1), Bronchial Spasm (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing general anaesthesia, intraoperative hypotension occurs frequently and is associated with adverse outcomes such as postoperative acute kidney failure, myocardial infarction or stroke. A history of chronic hypertension renders patients more susceptible to a decrease in blood pressure (BP) after induction of general anaesthesia. As a patient's BP is generally monitored intermittently via an upper arm cuff, there may be a delay in the detection of hypotension by the anaesthetist.
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates whether the presence of continuous BP monitoring leads to improved BP stability.
DESIGN: Randomised, controlled and single-centre study.
PATIENTS: A total of 160 orthopaedic patients undergoing general anaesthesia with a history of chronic hypertension.
INTERVENTION: The patients were randomised to either a study group (n = 77) that received continuous non-invasive BP monitoring in addition to oscillometric intermittent monitoring, or a control group (n = 83) whose BP was monitored intermittently only. The interval for oscillometric measurements in both groups was set to 3 min. After induction of general anaesthesia, oscillometric BP values of the two groups were compared for the first hour of the procedure. Anaesthetists were blinded to the purpose of the study.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: BP stability and hypotensive events.
RESULTS: There was no difference in baseline BP between the groups. After adjustment for multiple testing, mean arterial BP in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group at 12 and 15 min. Mean ± SD for study and control group, respectively were: 12 min, 102 ± 24 vs. 90 ± 26 mmHg (P = 0.039) and 15 min, 102 ± 21 vs. 90 ± 23 mmHg (P = 0.023). Hypotensive readings below a mean pressure of 55 mmHg occurred more often in the control group (25 vs. 7, P = 0.047).
CONCLUSION: Continuous monitoring contributes to BP stability in the studied population.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02519101.
BACKGROUND: After general anaesthesia (GA) in adults, the optimal tracheal extubation technique (positive pressure or suctioning) remains debated. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the effects of these techniques on onset time of desaturation (SpO2 < 92%).
METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with a body mass index < 30 scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery were allocated to positive pressure (PP) or suctioning (SUC) group. GA was standardised with propofol and remifentanil via target-controlled infusion. A morphine bolus of 0.15mg/kg was administered 20-30minutes before the end of surgery. The effect of extubation technique on onset time of desaturation (T92) was assessed during the first 10minutes after extubation during the spontaneous air breathing. Secondary endpoints included: frequency of desaturation, respiratory complications, need to use oxygen therapy and SpO2 at the end of the first hour while breathing in air (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01323049).
RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and intraoperative management data for the 68 patients included had no relevant clinical difference between groups. T92 (sec) after tracheal extubation was 214 (168) vs. 248 (148) in the PP and SUC groups, respectively (p = 0.44). In the PP and SUC groups, 50% and 43% reached a SpO2 < 92% within the first 10minutes after extubation respectively (p = 0.73). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for any secondary endpoints.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive pressure extubation as compared with suctioning extubation did not seem to delay onset time of desaturation after GA in standard weight adult patients.
Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal disorder that occurs in complete or partial mosaic forms. It is characterized by central apnea, mental retardation, seizure and congenital heart disease. The survival of the patients with trisomy 13 is the majority dying before one month. Trisomy 13 is the worst life prognosis among all trisomy syndromes. It is reported the cause of death is central apnea. Special needs patients with mental retardation are recognized to have poorer oral health condition. Oral health related quality of life reflects daily activity and well-being. Dental treatment under general anesthesia is sometimes an option for such patients. This patient had received ventricular septal defect closure surgery at 2-year-old. In addition, he had mental retardation and seizure. Dental treatment had been completed without any cerebral and cardiovascular events under non-invasive monitoring with not only cardiac electric velocimetry, but also epileptogenic activity. In addition, postoperative respiratory condition was maintained stable in room air.
Cardiovascular Diseases (1) Trisomy (5), Intellectual Disability (3), Central Sleep Apnea (2), more mentions