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Prevention/Cardiovascular Risk
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Your search returned 39 results
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Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major worldwide public health problem, and AF in association with valvular heart disease (VHD) is also common. However, management strategies for this group of patients have been less informed by randomized trials, which have largely focused on 'non-valvular AF' patients. Thrombo-embolic risk also varies according to valve lesion and may also be associated with CHA2DS2VASc score risk factor components, rather than only the valve disease being causal. Given marked heterogeneity in the definition of valvular and non-valvular AF and variable management strategies, including non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with VHD other than prosthetic heart valves or haemodynamically significant mitral valve disease, there is a need to provide expert recommendations for professionals participating in the care of patients presenting with AF and associated VHD. To address this topic, a Task Force was convened by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Thrombosis, with representation from the ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease, Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), South African Heart (SA Heart) Association and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE) with the remit to comprehensively review the published evidence, and to publish a joint consensus document on the management of patients with AF and associated VHD, with up-to-date consensus recommendations for clinical practice for different forms of VHD. This consensus document proposes that the term 'valvular AF' is outdated and given that any definition ultimately relates to the evaluated practical use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) type, we propose a functional Evaluated Heartvalves, Rheumatic or Artificial (EHRA) categorization in relation to the type of OAC use in patients with AF, as follows: (i) EHRA Type 1 VHD, which refers to AF patients with 'VHD needing therapy with a Vitamin K antagonist (VKA); and (ii) EHRA Type 2 VHD, which refers to AF patients with 'VHD needing therapy with a VKA or a Non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC)', also taking into consideration CHA2DS2VASc score risk factor components. This consensus document also summarizes current developments in the field, and provides general recommendations for the management of these patients based on the principles of evidence-based medicine.
Cardiovascular Diseases (10)
Heart Valve Diseases (5), Atrial Fibrillation (3), Thrombosis (2), more mentions
Mayo Clinic proceedings
Abstract: Clinical guidelines for instituting pharmacotherapy for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), specifically lipid management and aspirin, have long been based on absolute risk. However, lipid management in the current era remains challenging to both patients and clinicians in the setting of somewhat discordant recommendations from various organizations.
Cardiovascular Diseases (7)
Cardiovascular Diseases (1), more mentions
International journal of cardiology
We have conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrapericardial fibrinolysis in preventing complications of pericardial effusion... There is very low certainty of the efficiency and safety of intrapericardial fibrinolysis in preventing the complications of pericardial effusion. High quality RCTs are required to address this question Keyword: Intrapericardial fibrinolysis.
Cardiovascular Diseases (1)
Pericardial Effusion (7), Constrictive Pericarditis (1), Tuberculosis (1), more mentions
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 
A structured approach to evaluation based on clinical findings, precise echocardiographic imaging, and when necessary, adjunctive testing, can help clarify decision making. Treatment goals include timely intervention by an experienced heart team to prevent left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, reduced quality of life, and premature death Keyword: Expert Consensus Decision Pathway. Keyword: echocardiography.
Mitral Valve Insufficiency (4), Heart Failure (1), Ventricular Dysfunction (1), more mentions
American heart journal
AbstractText: The recommendation for statins in primary atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention begins with risk estimation using the pooled cohort equation (PCE... among nondiabetic individuals with LDL-C <190mg/dL AbstractText: A novel CHAN2T3 biomarker score could supplement risk-based discussion for ASCVD prevention, especially when treatment decision is uncertain.
Cardiovascular Diseases (4)
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), Albuminuria (1), Atherosclerosis (1), more mentions
Circulation 
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. METHOD: The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. CONCLUSIONS: The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines.
Cardiovascular Diseases (7), Endocrine Disorders (1), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1)
Cardiovascular Diseases (5), Heart Failure (2), Hypertension (2), more mentions
Circulation 
The comparative effects among participants with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (secondary versus primary prevention) were prespecified for evaluation... age with ≥2 risk factors for cardiovascular events but with no prior cardiovascular event, and the secondary prevention cohort comprised individuals ≥30 years of age with a prior cardiovascular event ...
Endocrine Disorders (5), Cardiovascular Diseases (3)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (3), Heart Failure (2), Myocardial Infarction (2), more mentions
Heart rhythm
BACKGROUND: Although large randomized clinical trials have found that primary prevention use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) improves survival in patients with cardiomyopathy and heart failure symptoms, patients who receive ICDs in practice are often older and have more comorbidities than patients who were enrolled in the clinical trials. In addition, there is a debate among clinicians on the usefulness of electrophysiological study for risk stratification of asymptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome. AIM: Our analysis has 2 objectives. First, to evaluate whether ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) induced with programmed electrostimulation in asymptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome identify a higher risk group that may require additional testing or therapies. Second, to evaluate whether implantation of an ICD is associated with a clinical benefit in older patients and patients with comorbidities who would otherwise benefit on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and heart failure symptoms. METHODS: Traditional statistical approaches were used to address 1) whether programmed ventricular stimulation identifies a higher-risk group in asymptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome and 2) whether ICD implantation for primary prevention is associated with improved outcomes in older patients (>75 years of age) and patients with significant comorbidities who would otherwise meet criteria for ICD implantation on the basis of symptoms or left ventricular function RESULTS: Evidence from 6 studies of 1138 asymptomatic patients were identified. Brugada syndrome with inducible VA on electrophysiological study was identified in 390 (34.3%) patients. To minimize patient overlap, the primary analysis used 5 of the 6 studies and found an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% CI: 0.63-8.66; p=0.2) for major arrhythmic events (sustained VAs, sudden cardiac death, or appropriate ICD therapy) in asymptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome and inducible VA on electrophysiological study versus those without inducible VA. Ten studies were reviewed that evaluated ICD use in older patients and 4 studies that evaluated unique patient populations were identified. In our analysis, ICD implantation was associated with improved survival (overall hazard ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.83; p<0.001). Ten studies were identified that evaluated ICD use in patients with various comorbidities including renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, heart disease, and others. A random effects model demonstrated that ICD use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (overall hazard ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.79; p<0.0001), and a second "minimal overlap" analysis also found that ICD use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (overall hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.82; p<0.0001). In 5 studies that included data on renal dysfunction, ICD implantation was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (overall hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.85; p<0.001).
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), Kidney Disease (2)
Brugada Syndrome (6), Heart Failure (3), Cardiac Arrhythmia (3), more mentions
Obstetrics and gynecology
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are the sole health care providers for otherwise healthy women. Therefore, they must be aware of risk factors, signs, and symptoms of cardiovascular disease and be prepared to recognize and treat this condition in patients as well as provide referrals when specialized care is indicated. Women with cardiac problems typically present with chest discomfort; however, they also are more likely than healthy women to present with other common symptoms, such as shortness of breath, back pain, jaw pain, or nausea and vomiting. This monograph, with a primary focus on ischemic heart disease (IHD), discusses the basic anatomy of the heart and coronary arteries; vascular biology; pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; and the screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of IHD as well as the multiple risk factors associated with the development of IHD that contribute to both increased morbidity and mortality.
Cardiovascular Diseases (5), Women's Health (1)
Myocardial Ischemia (3), Cardiovascular Diseases (2), Dyspnea (1), more mentions
European heart journal 
Aims: To assess whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy reduces major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Methods and results: A total of 235 articles were recovered using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library (inception-December 2016) and references contained in the identified articles. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected for final analysis. Analysis of 4268 patients demonstrated non-significant 26% relative risk reduction in MACE with CPAP [risk ratio (RR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-1.17; P = 0.19, I2 = 48%]. A series of sensitivity analyses suggested that increased CPAP usage time yielded significant risk reduction in MACE. and stroke. Subgroup analysis revealed that CPAP adherence time ≥4 hours (h)/night reduced the risk of MACE by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.23-0.80; P = 0.01, I2 = 0%). CPAP therapy showed no beneficial effect on myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), or heart failure (HF) (P > 0.05). CPAP had positive effect on mood and reduced the daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS): mean difference (MD) -2.50, 95% CI - 3.62, -1.39; P < 0.001, I2 = 81%]. Conclusion: CPAP therapy might reduce MACE and stroke among subjects with CPAP time exceeding 4 h/night. Additional randomized trials mandating adequate CPAP time adherence are required to confirm this impression.
Cardiovascular Diseases (4)
Heart Failure (1), Myocardial Infarction (1), Atrial Fibrillation (1), more mentions
European heart journal 
Aims: Current evidence on dyslipidaemia management has expanded to novel treatments and very low achieved levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We sought to compare the clinical impact of more-intensive vs. less-intensive LDL-C lowering by means of statins and currently recommended non-statin medications in secondary prevention. Methods and results: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials of statins, ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, or bile acid sequestrants with >500 patients followed for ≥1 year. We employed random-effects models using risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare outcomes. We included 19 trials (15 of statins, 3 of PCSK9 inhibitors, and 1 of ezetimibe) with 152 507 patients randomly assigned to more-intensive (n = 76 678) or less-intensive treatment (n = 75 829). More-intensive treatment was associated with 19% relative risk reduction for the primary outcome, major vascular events (MVEs; RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.77-0.86). Risk reduction was greater across higher baseline levels and greater achieved reductions of LDL-C. The clinical benefit was significant across varying types of more-intensive treatment and was consistent for statins (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.76-0.86) and non-statin agents (PCSK9 inhibitors and ezetimibe; RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94) as active (more-intensive) intervention (P-interaction = 0.38). Each 1.0 mmol/L reduction in LDL-C was associated with 19% relative decrease in MVE. Death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary revascularization also favoured more-intensive treatment. Conclusion: Reduction of MVE is proportional to the magnitude of LDL-C lowering across a broad spectrum of on-treatment levels in secondary prevention. Statin intensification and add-on treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors or ezetimibe are associated with significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity in this very high-risk population.
Cardiovascular Diseases (11)
Myocardial Infarction (1), more mentions
Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes
No Abstract Available
Cardiovascular Diseases (2)
Rheumatic Heart Disease (2), more mentions
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
BACKGROUND: A major determinant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is stress. As transcendental meditation (TM) is thought to help in lowering negative stress indicators, it may be a beneficial strategy for the primary prevention of CVD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 10); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to week three November 2013); EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (Ovid) (1947 to week 48 2013); ISI Web of Science (1970 to 28 November 2013); and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (November 2013). We also searched the Allied and complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (inception to January 2014) and IndMed (inception to January 2014). We handsearched trial registers and reference lists of reviews and articles and contacted experts in the field. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least three months' duration involving healthy adults or adults at high risk of CVD. Trials examined TM only and the comparison group was no intervention or minimal intervention. We excluded trials that involved multi-factorial interventions. Outcomes of interest were clinical CVD events (cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality and non-fatal events) and major CVD risk factors (e.g. blood pressure and blood lipids, occurrence of type 2 diabetes, quality of life, adverse events and costs). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. MAIN RESULTS: We identified four trials (four papers) (430 participants) for inclusion in this review. We identified no ongoing studies. The included trials were small, short term (three months) and at risk of bias. In all studies, TM was practised for 15 to 20 minutes twice a day.None of the included studies reported all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or non-fatal endpoints as trials were short term, but one study reported survival rate three years after the trial was completed. In view of the considerable statistical heterogeneity between the results of the studies for the only outcomes reported, systolic blood pressure (I(2) = 72%) and diastolic blood pressure (I(2) = 66%), we decided not to undertake a meta-analysis. None of the four trials reported blood lipids, occurrence of type 2 diabetes, adverse events, costs or quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there are few trials with limited outcomes examining the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD. Due to the limited evidence to date, we could draw no conclusions as to the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD. There was considerable heterogeneity between trials and the included studies were small, short term and at overall serious risk of bias. More and larger long-term, high-quality trials are needed.
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), Endocrine Disorders (2)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (2), Cardiovascular Diseases (2), more mentions
American heart journal
Relative to primary prevention patients, ASCVD patients were more likely to be on a statin (83.6% vs 63.4%, P <.0001) and guideline-recommended intensity (47.3% vs 36.0 ... In primary prevention, increasing age, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and lower 10-year ASCVD risk were associated with increased odds of receiving recommended intensity.
Cardiovascular Diseases (11), Endocrine Disorders (1), Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (1)
Hypertension (1), Cardiovascular Diseases (1), Obesity (1), more mentions
Circulation
Impact of Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Trial on Statin Eligibility for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Insights from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey..
Cardiovascular Diseases (4)
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), more mentions
PloS one
... the reduction in the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) on statin therapy AbstractText: From January 2010 to August 2014, a total of 4099 patients with ASCVD in the Taiwan Secondary Prevention for patients with AtheRosCLErotic disease (T-SPARCLE) registry were analyzed.
Cardiovascular Diseases (9)
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), more mentions
The American journal of the medical sciences 
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of folic acid supplementation on stroke prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) AbstractText: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases through October 2016 to identify randomized clinical trials of folic acid supplementation to prevent stroke in patients with CVD. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to examine the ...
Cardiovascular Diseases (3)
Cardiovascular Diseases (3), more mentions
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Cardiac troponin: the next tool for cardiovascular disease prevention in ambulatory patients?.
Cardiovascular Diseases (2)
Cardiovascular Diseases (2), more mentions
Journal of the American Heart Association
BACKGROUND: The relationship between plasma concentrations of betaine and choline metabolism and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points remains unclear. We have evaluated the association between metabolites from the choline pathway and risk of incident CVD and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We designed a case-cohort study nested within the PREDIMED (Prevention With Mediterranean Diet) trial, including 229 incident CVD cases and 751 randomly selected participants at baseline, followed up for 4.8 years. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure, at baseline and at 1 year of follow-up, plasma concentrations of 5 metabolites in the choline pathway: trimethylamine N-oxide, betaine, choline, phosphocholine, and α-glycerophosphocholine. We have calculated a choline metabolite score using a weighted sum of these 5 metabolites. We used weighted Cox regression models to estimate CVD risk. The multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) per 1-SD increase in choline and α-glycerophosphocholine metabolites were 1.24 (1.05-1.46) and 1.24 (1.03-1.50), respectively. The baseline betaine/choline ratio was inversely associated with CVD. The baseline choline metabolite score was associated with a 2.21-fold higher risk of CVD across extreme quartiles (95% confidence interval, 1.36-3.59; P<0.001 for trend) and a 2.27-fold higher risk of stroke (95% confidence interval, 1.24-4.16; P<0.001 for trend). Participants in the higher quartiles of the score who were randomly assigned to the control group had a higher risk of CVD compared with participants in the lower quartile and assigned to the Mediterranean diet groups (P=0.05 for interaction). No significant associations were observed for 1-year changes in individual plasma metabolites and CVD. CONCLUSIONS: A metabolite score combining plasma metabolites from the choline pathway was associated with an increased risk of CVD in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.
Cardiovascular Diseases (3)
Cardiovascular Diseases (3), more mentions
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Most cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs in patients over the age of 60. However, most evidence-based current cardiovascular guidelines lack evidence in an older population, due to the under-representation of older patients in randomised trials. Blood pressure rises with age due to increasing arterial stiffness, and stricter control results in improved outcomes. Myocardial ischaemia is also more common with increasing age, due to a combination of coronary artery disease and myocardial changes. However, despite higher rates of adverse outcomes, older patients are offered guideline-based therapy less frequently. Frailty is an independent predictor of mortality in adults over the age of 60, yet remains poorly assessed; slow gait speed is a key marker for the development of frailty and for adverse outcomes following intervention. Few trials have assessed frailty independent of age; however, there is evidence that non-frail older patients derive significant benefit from therapy, highlighting the urgent need to include frailty as a measure in clinical trials of treatment in CVD.In this review, the authors appraise the literature in regard to the cardiovascular changes with ageing, specifically in relation to the systemic and coronary circulation and with a particular emphasis on frailty and its implication in the evaluation and treatment of CVD.
Cardiovascular Diseases (2)
Heart Diseases (1), Cardiovascular Diseases (1), Coronary Artery Disease (1), more mentions
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