... dysfunction has been observed in men when transitioning from 6-fraction to 2-fraction HDR monotherapy. A dosimetric correlation was found between the V150 and bladder wall doses for acute urinary toxicity. Future research should continue to standardize and validate dose constraints for prostate HDR monotherapy patients Keyword: brachytherapy. Keyword: prostate neoplasms. Keyword: radiationoncology. Keyword: retrospective studies. Keyword: urology.
AbstractText: Erectile dysfunction (ED) after treatment for prostate cancer with radiotherapy (RT) is well known, and pooled estimates of ED after RT will provide more accurate patient education AbstractText: To systematically evaluate the natural history of ED in men with previous erectile function after prostate RT and to determine clinical ...
Men's Health (22), Oncology (2) Erectile Dysfunction (4), Prostatic Neoplasms (2), more mentions
AbstractText: Hypoxia is a well recognised parameter of tumour resistance to radiotherapy, a number of anticancer drugs and potentially immunotherapy. In a previously published exploration cohort of 25 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients on [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography (FMISO-PET) we identified residual tumour hypoxia during radiochemotherapy, not before start of treatment, as the driving ...
Oncology (1) Hypoxia (7), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (1), Head and Neck Neoplasms (1), more mentions
... improves access to palliative radiotherapy and reduces time from referral to treatment AbstractText: At RadiationOncology Mater Center (ROMC) in Brisbane, Australia a new referral pathway was developed which involved ... requiring palliative radiotherapy, being referred directly to the APRT from a single external hospital medicaloncology and palliative care departments.
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence supporting the use of local treatment (LT) for prostate cancer (PCa) patients with clinically pelvic lymph node-positive (cN1) disease.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of any form of LT±androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in treating these individuals.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using the National Cancer Database (2003-2011), we retrospectively identified 2967 individuals who received LT±ADT versus ADT alone for cN1 PCa. Only radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiation therapy (RT) were considered as definitive LT.
INTERVENTION: LT±ADT versus ADT alone.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Instrumental variable analyses (IVA) were performed using a two-stage residual inclusion approach to compare overall mortality (OM)-free survival between patients who received LT±ADT versus ADT alone. The same methodology was used to further compare OM-free survival between patients who received RP±ADT versus RT±ADT.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 1987 (67%) and 980 (33%) patients received LT±ADT and ADT alone, respectively. In the LT±ADT group, 751 (37.8%) and 1236 (62.2%) patients received RP±ADT and RT±ADT, respectively. In IVA, LT±ADT was associated with a significant OM-free survival benefit (hazard ratio=0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.13-0.74, p=0.007), when compared with ADT alone. At 5 yr, OM-free survival was 78.8% (95% CI: 74.1-83.9%) versus 49.2% (95% CI: 33.9-71.4%) in the LT±ADT versus ADT alone groups. When comparing RP±ADT versus RT±ADT, IVA showed no significant difference in OM-free survival between the two treatment modalities (hazard ratio=0.54, 95% CI=0.19-1.52, p=0.2). Despite the use of an IVA, our study may be limited by residual unmeasured confounding.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that PCa patients with clinically pelvic lymph node-positive disease may benefit from any form of LT±ADT over ADT alone. While not necessarily curative by itself, the use of RP or RT could be the first step in a multi-modality approach aiming at providing the best cancer control outcomes for these individuals.
PATIENTS SUMMARY: We examined the role of local treatment for clinically pelvic lymph node-positive prostate cancer. We found that the delivery of radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy may be associated with an overall mortality-free survival benefit compared with androgen deprivation therapy alone.
Oncology (5) Prostatic Neoplasms (4), Neoplasms (2), more mentions
The 15th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2017 in Vienna, Austria reviewed substantial new evidence on loco-regional and systemic therapies for early breast cancer. Treatments were assessed in light of their intensity, duration and side-effects, seeking where appropriate to escalate or de-escalate therapies based on likely benefits as predicted by tumor stage and tumor biology. The Panel favored several interventions that may reduce surgical morbidity, including acceptance of 2 mm margins for DCIS, the resection of residual cancer (but not baseline extent of cancer) in women undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, acceptance of sentinel node biopsy following neoadjuvant treatment of many patients, and the preference for neoadjuvant therapy in HER2 positive and triple-negative, stage II and III breast cancer. The Panel favored escalating radiation therapy with regional nodal irradiation in high-risk patients, while encouraging omission of boost in low-risk patients. The Panel endorsed gene expression signatures that permit avoidance of chemotherapy in many patients with ER positive breast cancer. For women with higher risk tumors, the Panel escalated recommendations for adjuvant endocrine treatment to include ovarian suppression in premenopausal women, and extended therapy for postmenopausal women. However, low-risk patients can avoid these treatments. Finally, the Panel recommended bisphosphonate use in postmenopausal women to prevent breast cancer recurrence. The Panel recognized that recommendations are not intended for all patients, but rather to address the clinical needs of the majority of common presentations. Individualization of adjuvant therapy means adjusting to the tumor characteristics, patient comorbidities and preferences, and managing constraints of treatment cost and access that may affect care in both the developed and developing world.
Oncology (10) Breast Neoplasms (8), Neoplasms (5), Residual Neoplasm (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence to tamoxifen is common in breast cancer survivors and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study aimed to understand womens' experiences of taking tamoxifen and to identify factors which may be associated with non-adherence.
DESIGN: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews.
METHODS: Thirty-two breast cancer survivors who had been prescribed tamoxifen took part in interviews conducted face to face or over the telephone. They were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory.
RESULTS: A key theme identified in the data was weighing up costs and benefits of treatment, which resulted in women falling into three groups; tamoxifen is keeping me alive, tamoxifen is not worth the reduced risk of recurrence, or conflicting beliefs about the harms and benefits of treatment. Additional themes were living with risk of recurrence and information & support.
CONCLUSIONS: Women who believed that the necessity of tamoxifen outweighed its costs were more likely to be adherent, whereas women who thought that the benefits did not outweigh the side effects were more likely to have discontinued. A third more ambivalent group believed strongly in the importance of treatment, but were struggling with side effects and were often non-adherent. Patients sometimes felt unsupported and discussed a need for more comprehensive information. To increase adherence, future research needs to explore ways to increase beliefs around tamoxifen necessity and how to help women cope with side effects. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Non-adherence to tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality. Up to 50% of patients are non-adherent to tamoxifen by the fifth year of treatment Few consistent predictors of tamoxifen non-adherence have been identified. What does this study add? Many women report not knowing how to manage their side effects. Non-adherence is related to how women weigh up their side effects against their medication beliefs. Interventions aiming to increase necessity beliefs and improve symptom management may be effective.