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Sports Medicine
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Your search returned 19 results
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BMJ open
AbstractText: The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most used questionnaires for measuring functional recovery after a hindfoot injury. Recently, this instrument was translated and culturally adapted into a Dutch version. In this study, the measurement properties of the Dutch language version (DLV) were investigated in patients with a unilateral hindfoot fracture AbstractText ...
Journal of orthopaedic trauma
... opioid prescribing practices, determine the number of morphine milliequivalents (MMEs) prescribed by orthopaedic/non-orthopaedic members to narcotic naive and previously exposed patients and provide narcotic prescribing recommendations AbstractText: Patients over 18 years old with an isolated femur fracture sustained between 2013 and 2015 were identified using the CPT code 27506 ...
International orthopaedics
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis characterised by a painful ulceration mimicking infection of the operative site. To this day, there is still no general agreement on the medical and surgical treatment of PG. This systematic review of the literature aims to summarise recent studies about post-operative PG in orthopaedic surgery to improve its medical and surgical management. METHOD: In April 2017, we carried out an exhaustive review of the literature in MEDLINE, PubMed and Cochrane databases. Key words were pyoderma gangrenosum, orthopaedic surgery, and surgical wound infection. We identified 183 articles. After excluding articles reporting idiopathic PG, cases secondary to non-orthopaedic surgery, and cases about other subtypes of dermatosis, 30 studies were identified. We only included articles reporting PG after orthopaedic or trauma surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-one cases of PG have been reported, 58% (18) of which were in women, whose mean age was 56.5 years. Clinical signs were constant, the most frequently affected site was lower limbs [77.4% (24)] and delay of symptom onset was two to 17 days. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was systematic, polyvalent immunoglobulins were used in two cases and immunosuppressive drugs in one. Negative pressure therapy was used in seven cases and hyperbaric oxygen in three. DISCUSSION: Delayed diagnosis leads to one or more surgical revisions, which could have been avoided by using early and adapted medical treatment. Early onset of a painful and infected ulcer at the operating site in a patient at risk of PG is an indicator that dermatologist advice is recommended before surgical debridement. Surgical revision, outside the inflammatory phase and/or covered by a systemic corticosteroid therapy, does not lead to PG relapse. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV: Systematic revue of the literature.
Pyoderma Gangrenosum (4), Infections (2), Skin Diseases (2), more mentions
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
PURPOSE: The first purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of various radiographic parameters and pathomorphologies for patients presenting with the diagnosis of hip pain. The second purpose of this study was to identify those pathomorphologies and radiographic parameters that were predictive of clinically suspected intra-articular and hip joint-related symptoms. METHODS: A total of 998 hips (499 patients, 228 males, 271 females, mean age 38 years) presented to 2 orthopaedic surgeons with the diagnosis of hip pain. Patients were retrospectively identified as intra-articular and hip joint-related symptoms or extra-articular and non-hip joint-related symptoms based on history, examination, injection response, and diagnosis listed on clinical notes. A detailed morphologic evaluation of anteroposterior and 45° modified Dunn lateral radiographs of both hips was performed for all patients. RESULTS: The presence of at least 1 finding consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was noted in 96.6% of patients (89.9% of hips) and was bilateral in 83%. The prevalence of dysplasia was 10.6% in patients (6.7% of hips) and was bilateral in 2.8%. Cam-type morphology was more common in males (P < .001). Profunda and protrusio were more common in females (P < .001). Acetabular retroversion was more common in males (P = .02). Fifty-seven percent of hips (564/998) were diagnosed clinically with intra-articular and hip joint related symptoms. Cam-type FAI, mixed-type FAI, increasing alpha angle, and increasing Tönnis grade were independent predictors of clinically suspected intra-articular and hip joint symptoms (P < .001), whereas isolated Pincer-type morphology was not. CONCLUSIONS: FAI is highly prevalent (96.6%) and frequently bilateral (83%) in patients presenting to an orthopaedic clinic with hip pain. Cam-type morphology and acetabular retroversion are more frequent in men, whereas profunda and protrusio are more frequent in women. Cam-type morphology, increasing alpha angle (larger cam morphology), and increasing Tönnis grade were highly predictive of clinically suspected intra-articular symptoms, whereas isolated pincer-type morphology was not. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control study.
Femoracetabular Impingement (1), more mentions
PloS one
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients were referred for evaluation for chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) based on clinical examination and complaints of activity-related leg pain in the region of the tibialis anterior muscle. Previous studies using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed greater deoxygenation during exercise for CECS patients versus healthy controls; however, this comparison has not been done for diabetic CECS patients. METHODS: We used NIRS to test for differences in oxygenation kinetics for Type 1 diabetic patients diagnosed with (CECS-diabetics, n = 9) versus diabetic patients without (CON-diabetics, n = 10) leg anterior chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Comparisons were also made between non-diabetic CECS patients (n = 11) and healthy controls (CON, n = 10). The experimental protocol consisted of thigh arterial cuff occlusion (AO, 1-minute duration), and treadmill running to reproduce symptoms. NIRS variables generated were resting StO2%, and oxygen recovery following AO. Also, during and following treadmill running the magnitude of deoxygenation and oxygen recovery, respectively, were determined. RESULTS: There was no difference in resting StO2% between CECS-diabetics (78.2±12.6%) vs. CON-diabetics (69.1±20.8%), or between CECS (69.3±16.2) vs. CON (75.9±11.2%). However, oxygen recovery following AO was significantly slower for CECS (1.8±0.8%/sec) vs. CON (3.8±1.7%/sec) (P = 0.002); these data were not different between the diabetic groups. StO2% during exercise was lower (greater deoxygenation) for CECS-diabetics (6.3±8.6%) vs. CON-diabetics (40.4±22.0%), and for CECS (11.3±16.8%) vs. CON (34.1±21.2%) (P<0.05 for both). The rate of oxygen recovery post exercise was faster for CECS-diabetics (3.5±2.6%/sec) vs. CON-diabetics (1.4±0.8%/sec) (P = 0.04), and there was a tendency of difference for CECS (3.1±1.4%/sec) vs. CON (1.9±1.3%/sec) (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The greater deoxygenation during treadmill running for the CECS-diabetics group (vs. CON-diabetics) is in line with previous studies (and with the present study) that compared non-diabetic CECS patients with healthy controls. Our findings could suggest that NIRS may be useful as a diagnostic tool for assessing Type 1 diabetic patients suspected of CECS.
Endocrine Disorders (1)
Compartment Syndromes (4), Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 (1), more mentions
Medicine
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers in emergency departments should wear respirators for infection protection. However, the wearer's vigorous movements during cardiopulmonary resuscitation may affect the protective performance of the respirator. Herein, we aimed to assess the effects of chest compressions (CCs) on the protective performance of respirators. METHODS: This crossover study evaluated 30 healthcare providers from 1 emergency department who performed CC with real-time feedback. The first, second, and third groups started with a cup-type, fold-type, and valve-type respirator, respectively, after which the respirators were randomized for each group. The fit factors were measured using a quantitative fit testing device before and during the CC in each experiment. The protection rate was defined as the proportion of respirators achieving a fit factor ≥100. RESULTS: The fold-type respirator had a significantly greater protection rate at baseline (100.0% ± 0.0%) compared to the cup-type (73.6% ± 39.6%, P = .003) and valve-type respirators (87.5% ± 30.3%, P = .012). During the CC, the fit factor values significantly decreased for the cup-type (44.9% ± 42.8%, P < .001) and valve-type respirators (59.5% ± 41.7%, P = .002), but not for the fold-type respirator (93.2% ± 21.7%, P = .095). CONCLUSIONS: The protective performances of respirators may be influenced by CC. Healthcare providers should identify the respirator that provides the best fit for their intended tasks.
Infections (1), more mentions
Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study. Standing blindfolded on a force platform, four trials were completed: 60 s quiet standing followed by 20 min active (anodal-tDCS, 1 mA, 20 min, N = 14) or sham-ctDCS (40 s, N = 14) tDCS; three quiet standing trials with 15 s of Achilles tendon vibration and 25 s of postural recovery. Postural steadiness was quantified as displacement, standard deviation and path derived from the center of pressure (COP). RESULTS: Baseline demographics and quiet standing postural steadiness, and backwards displacement during vibration were comparable between groups. However, active-tDCS significantly improved postural steadiness during vibration and reduced forward displacement and variability in COP derivatives during recovery. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that ctDCS results in short-term improvement of postural adaptation in healthy individuals. SIGNIFICANCE: Future studies need to investigate if multisession ctDCS combined with training or rehabilitation interventions can induce prolonged improvement of postural balance.
Ultrasound in medicine & biology
A clinically feasible method to reliably estimate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths could provide essential diagnostic and treatment planning information. A 3-D freehand ultrasound (3-DfUS) method was previously validated for extracting in vivo medial gastrocnemius (MG) lengths, although the processing time can be considered substantial for the clinical environment. This investigation analyzed a quicker and simpler method using the US transducer as a spatial pointer (US-PaP), where the within-session reliability of extracting the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) and tendon lengths are estimated. MG MTU lengths were extracted in a group of 14 healthy adults using both 3-DfUS and US-PaP. Two consecutive acquisitions were performed per participant, and the data processed by two researchers independently. The intra-class correlation coefficients were above 0.97, and the standard error of measurements below 3.6 mm (1.5%). This investigation proposes that the simplified US-PaP method is a viable alternative for estimating MG MTU lengths.
British journal of sports medicine 
BACKGROUND: Recent investigation of human tissue and cells from positional tendons such as the rotator cuff has clarified the importance of inflammation in the development and progression of tendon disease. These mechanisms remain poorly understood in disease of energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles. Using tissue biopsies from patients, we investigated if inflammation is a feature of Achilles tendinopathy and rupture. METHODS: We studied Achilles tendon biopsies from symptomatic patients with either mid-portion tendinopathy or rupture for evidence of abnormal inflammatory signatures. Tendon-derived stromal cells from healthy hamstring and diseased Achilles were cultured to determine the effects of cytokine treatment on expression of inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles highly expressed CD14+ and CD68+ cells and showed a complex inflammation signature, involving NF-κB, interferon and STAT-6 activation pathways. Interferon markers IRF1 and IRF5 were highly expressed in tendinopathic samples. Achilles ruptures showed increased PTGS2 and interleukin-8 expression. Tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles tissues expressed stromal fibroblast activation markers podoplanin and CD106. Tendon cells isolated from diseased Achilles showed increased expression of pro-inflammatory and stromal fibroblast activation markers after cytokine stimulation compared with healthy hamstring tendon cells. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue and cells derived from tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles tendons show evidence of chronic (non-resolving) inflammation. The energy-storing Achilles shares common cellular and molecular inflammatory mechanisms with functionally distinct rotator cuff positional tendons. Differences seen in the profile of ruptured Achilles are likely to be attributable to a superimposed phase of acute inflammation and neo-vascularisation. Strategies that target chronic inflammation are of potential therapeutic benefit for patients with Achilles tendon disease.
Tendinopathy (4), more mentions
Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica 
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the likelihood of a better clinical outcome after the peritendinous injection of PRP for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy and identify whether PRP represents an effective treatment option for chronic tendinopathies. METHODS: The study included 214 patients (86 males and 128 females; mean age: 39.3 (18-75) years) who received PRP injections for tendinopathy refractory to conventional treatments. The mean duration of symptoms at the moment of the PRP treatment was 8.3 months. Primary outcome measurement was perceived improvement in symptoms for each anatomic compartment for upper and lower limbs at 6 months after treatment. Also, a visual analog scale (VAS) score (pain intensity on a 0-10 scale) was used for pain scoring questionnaire before treatment, 6 weeks and 6 months following the PRP injection(s). To identify factors associated with the likelihood of a better clinical outcome, patients were categorized on the basis of their perceived improvement in symptoms 6 months after the PRP injection(s)-that is, as lower (less than 50% global improvement) or higher (more than 50% global improvement). RESULTS: A visual analogue scale score and perceived improvement in symptoms were significantly lower after peritendinous injection in 6-week and 6-month follow-ups compared with the baseline (P < 0.001) except for peroneal and Achilles tendons. Overall, 83% of patients indicated moderate to complete improvement in symptoms. The most common injection sites were the lateral epicondyle, Achilles, and patellar tendons. Furthermore, 30% of patients received only 1 injection, 30% received 2 injections, and 40% received 3 or more injections. A total of 85% of patients were satisfied (more than 50% global improvement) with the procedure. In addition, upper limb tendons, increase in the age, and female gender were associated with a higher likelihood of perceived improvement in symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In the present retrospective study assessing PRP injections in the treatment of chronic tendinopathy, a moderate improvement (>50%) in pain symptoms was observed in most of the patients. Our research found that results were most promising with patellar and lateral epicondylar tendinopathy in the short to medium term. Female patients, patients with upper extremity tendinopathy and older patients appeared to benefit more from PRP injection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Therapeutic study.
Tendinopathy (6), more mentions
BMJ open
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is fundamental in diabetes management for good metabolic control. This study aimed to identify barriers to performing leisure time physical activity and explore differences based on gender, age, marital status, employment, education, income and perceived stages of change in physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes in Oman. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using an Arabic version of the 'Barriers to Being Active' 27-item questionnaire. SETTING: Seventeen primary health centres randomly selected in Muscat. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals>18 years with type 2 diabetes, attending diabetes clinic for >2 years and with no contraindications to performing physical activity. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were asked to rate how far different factors influenced their physical activity under the following categories: fear of injury, lack of time, social support, energy, willpower, skills, resources, religion and environment. On a scale of 0-9, barriers were considered important if scored ≥5. RESULTS: A total of 305 questionnaires were collected. Most (96%) reported at least one barrier to performing leisure time physical activity. Lack of willpower (44.4%), lack of resources (30.5%) and lack of social support (29.2%) were the most frequently reported barriers. Using χ(2) test, lack of willpower was significantly different in individuals with low versus high income (54.2%vs40%, P=0.002) and in those reporting inactive versus active stages of change for physical activity (50.7%vs34.7%, P=0.029), lack of resources was significantly different in those with low versus high income (40%vs24.3%, P=0.004) and married versus unmarried (33.8%vs18.5%, P=0.018). Lack of social support was significant in females versus males (35.4%vs20.8%, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The findings can inform the design on physical activity intervention studies by testing the impact of strategies which incorporate ways to address reported barriers including approaches that enhance self-efficacy and social support.
Endocrine Disorders (7)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (4), Diabetes Mellitus (3), more mentions
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) into Polish version, and to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS: The ATRS was translated into Polish language according to the Beaton recommendations. A total number of 71 patients previously treated surgically (from 2011 to 2015), due to the Achilles tendon rupture, were enrolled in this study. ATRS-Polish was performed twice within a period of 5-10 days. To evaluate test-retest reliability, intra-rater coefficient (ICC) was calculated. Construct validity was determined by the Spearman's rank coefficient correlation between the ATRS-Polish and a Polish version of EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability was found to be excellent (ICC 0.9). The mean and standard deviation of the first and second assessment amounted 87.4 ± 14.0 and 88.4 ± 13.2, respectively. Construct validity analysis showed a strong correlation between the ATRS and the EQ-5D-5L score (r = - 0.69.) and moderate correlation between ATRS and actual comfort (r = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Polish version of the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was found to be reliable and valid. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.
Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
INTRODUCTION: Numerous publications are dealing with acute Achilles tendon rupture. To our knowledge, no systematic trial has been published analyzing the incidence, risk factors and the potential clinical impact of postoperative tendon calcifications (PTC) after percutaneous Achilles tendon repair. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze these relevant aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2003 and November 2010, a total of 126 patients with an acute, complete Achilles tendon rupture were treated with a percutaneous technique according to Ma and Griffith at a single university-based trauma department. The follow-up included a detailed clinical and sonographic examination. To assess the functional outcome and possible impact of PTC after percutaneous Achilles tendon repair, the Thermann and AOFAS scores were used. 81 patients (65 men and 16 women) with a median age of 46 years (range 24-76) were available for a follow-up examination. The median time of follow-up was 64 months (range 15-110 months). RESULTS: PTC occurred in nine out of 81 patients (11.1%). All patients with PTC were male with a median age of 52 years (range 26-76 years). In the group of patients with PTC, the median overall Thermann score was 94 (range 68-100) and the median overall AOFAS score was 97 (range 85-100). In the group of patients without PTC, the median overall Thermann score was 88.5 (range 60-100) and the median overall AOFAS score was 97 (range 85-100). No significant differences were detected between the group of patients with PTC and the group of patients without PTC and the clinical outcome according to the Thermann (p = 0.21) and the AOFAS scores (p = 0.37). None of the patients with PTC sustained a re-rupture. The overall re-rupture rate was 4.9%. PTC was no risk factor for wound and neurological complications. CONCLUSION: The incidence of PTC after percutaneous Achilles tendon repair was 11.1%. Male gender and advanced age seem to be risk factors for PTC. In this study, PTC had no negative impact on the postoperative clinical outcome.
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA
PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy is characterized by a proliferation of small vessels, called neovascularization, which can be demonstrated by power Doppler sonography (PD). Neovascularization can be correlated with diagnosis and consequent therapies focused on vascular supply. Published data regarding the relationship between neovascularisation and symptoms, such as pain and disability, are contradictory. The hypothesis that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could detect with more sensibility than PD the new vessel ingrowth in human degenerated Achilles tendons and therefore the correlation of neovascularization with pain and disability, was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients of recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy were studied with ultrasound greyscale (US), PD, CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging. Neovascularization was recorded as percentage on the whole extension of examined area. The vascularization time was recorded as venous and arterial type. Imaging data were classified both concurrently with the examination and in a secondary blinded assessment; any difference in the subjective assessment was discussed and a consensus view formed. Pain and disability were assessed by Western Ontario McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQuality of life 5-dimension-5-level questionnaire and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). All results were analysed with suitable statistical methods. RESULTS: 76.7% of cases were degenerated; 23.3% had also partial discontinuity of the fibres. PD detected vascularization in 54% of cases, whereas CEUS in 83% of cases: in 13 cases, PD did not detect vascularization. The vascularization time was rapid (< 20 s, arterial type) in 60% of cases. WOMAC pain mean value is 6.4 and SD 3.4; WOMAC total score mean value is 21.6 and SD 12.8. EQ-VAS mean value is 56 and SD 18.3. No statistically significant correlation emerged between vascularization and pain/disability. CONCLUSIONS: CEUS showed a greater ability to detect neovessels than PD in chronic Achilles tendinopathies. Nevertheless in 30 consecutive tendinopathies, no correlation between pain/disability and neovascularization was found: the role of multiple neovessels continue to be unclear. The possibility to discriminate arterial from venous vessels ('vascularization time') could be useful to understand the pathophysiology of tendinopathies and its healing process. STUDY TYPE: Diagnostic study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1)
Tendinopathy (4), Tendinosis (1), Arthritis (1), more mentions
Urology
Fluoroquinolones (FQ) has been considered the first-line therapy for uncomplicated urinary infections. It has been associated with Achilles tendon disorders, especially during the first month of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current evidence and to identify associated risk factors which increase the incidence of this complication. METHODS: Data sources searched included PubMed, MedLine and Scopus from January 1988 to June 2017. RESULTS: A total of 79 articles were used, ciprofloxacin representing the most common drug. CONCLUSION: We found that male gender, advanced age, normal BMI, chronic renal failure and concurrent use of corticosteroids increase the risk of Achilles tendon disorders.
Kidney Failure (1), Infections (1), more mentions
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
... the corresponding functional position quiet value provides a useful functional activation ratio and may help clinicians better understand the transverse abdominis role during complex functional tasks. Assessment techniques using various formulas for activation ratios reveal that the muscle functions differently during weight bearing compared to traditional measures Keyword: abdominal wall. Keyword: kinesiology. Keyword: musculoskeletal. Keyword: sports medicine/orthopedics. Keyword: ultrasound.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1), more mentions
The American journal of sports medicine
BACKGROUND: Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. RESULTS: Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P < .001-.012). Significant improvement in calf muscle performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. CONCLUSION: Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance occurred after the 2-year follow-up except for heel-rise height.
British journal of sports medicine 
No summary available
British journal of sports medicine
No Abstract Available