Background: Nontraumatic knee pain (NTKP) is highly prevalent in adults 65 years of age and older. Evidence-based guidelines recommend early use of rehabilitation; however, there is limited information comparing differences in health care utilization when rehabilitation is included in the management of NTKP.
Objectives: To describe the overall health care utilization associated with the management of NTKP; estimate the proportion of people who receive outpatient rehabilitation services; and evaluate the timing of outpatient rehabilitation and its association with other health care utilization.
Design: Rretrospective cohort study was conducted using a random 10% sample of 2009-2010 Medicare claims. The sample included 52,504 beneficiaries presenting within the ambulatory setting for management of NTKP.
Methods: Exposure to outpatient rehabilitative services following the NTKP index ambulatory visit was defined as 1) no rehabilitation; 2) early rehabilitation (1-15 days); 3) intermediate rehabilitation (16-120 days); and 4) late rehabilitation (>120 days). Logistic regression models were fit to analyze the association of rehabilitation timing with narcotic analgesic use, utilization of nonsurgical invasive procedure, and knee surgery during a 12-month follow-up period.
Results: Only 11.1% of beneficiaries were exposed to outpatient rehabilitation services. The likelihood of using narcotics, nonsurgical invasive procedures, or surgery was significantly less (adjusted odds ratios; 0.67, 0.50, 0.58, respectively) for those who received early rehabilitation when compared to no rehabilitation. The exposure-outcome relationships were reversed in the intermediate and late rehabilitation cohorts.
Limitations: This was an observational study, and residual confounding could affect the observed relationships. Therefore, definitive conclusions regarding the causal effect of rehabilitation exposure and reduced utilization of more aggressive interventions cannot be determined at this time.
Conclusions: Early referral for outpatient rehabilitation may reduce the utilization of health services that carry greater risks or costs in those with NTKP.
... group and the ACLR + MM + LM resection group AbstractText: In ACLR, additional MM resection increased whereas MM repair preserved knee laxity in comparison with the ACLR knee with intact menisci... to repair the meniscus whenever possible to avoid the residual postoperative laxity present in the meniscus-deficient knee Keyword: ACL reconstruction.
amputee and powered prosthesis) responds to changes in the prosthesis mechanics and gravitational load. Five transfemoral amputees walked with and without load (i.e. weighted backpack) and a powered kneeprosthesis with two pre-programmed controller settings (i.e. for load and no load. We recorded subjects' kinematics, kinetics, and perceived exertion.
... was designed to analyze the association of obesity with closed kneedislocation and vascular complications AbstractText: Retrospective cohort study AbstractText: The de ... were excluded, obese and morbidly obese patients that sustained a kneedislocation had higher average cost of hospital stay, than non-obese ... significant increases in costs of stay with obese patients sustaining kneedislocations when compared to normal weight kneedislocation patients.
Anti-Obesity and Weight Loss (21) Vascular Injuries (7), Obesity (3), more mentions
BACKGROUND: The effect of patient age or sex on outcomes after osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) has not been assessed.
PURPOSE: To determine clinical outcomes for male and female patients aged ≥40 years undergoing OCA compared with a group of patients aged <40 years.
STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: A review of prospectively collected data of consecutive patients who underwent OCA by a single surgeon with a minimum follow-up of 2 years was conducted. The reoperation rate, failure rate, and patient-reported outcome scores were reviewed. All outcomes were compared between patients aged <40 or ≥40 years, with subgroup analyses conducted based on patient sex. Failure was defined as revision OCA, conversion to knee arthroplasty, or gross appearance of graft failure at second-look arthroscopic surgery. Descriptive statistics, Fisher exact or chi-square testing, and Mann-Whitney U testing were performed, with P < .05 set as significant.
RESULTS: A total of 170 patients (of 212 eligible patients; 80.2% follow-up) who underwent OCA with a mean follow-up of 5.0 ± 2.7 years (range, 2.0-15.1 years) were included, with 115 patients aged <40 years (mean age, 27.6 ± 7.3 years; 58 male, 57 female) and 55 patients aged ≥40 years (mean age, 44.9 ± 4.0 years; 33 male, 22 female). There were no differences in the number of pre-OCA procedures between the groups ( P = .085). There were no differences in the reoperation rate (<40 years: 38%; ≥40 years: 36%; P = .867), time to reoperation (<40 years: 2.12 ± 1.90 years; ≥40 years: 3.43 ± 3.43 years; P = .126), or failure rate (<40 years: 13%; ≥40 years: 16%; P = .639) between the older and younger groups. Patients in both groups demonstrated significant improvement in Lysholm (both: P < .001), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) (both: P < .001), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (both: P < .001), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) (both: P < .001), and Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical (both: P < .001) scores compared with preoperative values. Patients aged ≥40 years demonstrated significantly higher KOOS symptom ( P = .015) subscores compared with patients aged <40 years. There were no significant differences in the number of complications, outcome scores, or time to failure between the sexes. In patients aged <40 years, female patients experienced failure significantly more quickly than male patients ( P = .039). In contrast, in patients aged ≥40 years, male patients experienced failure significantly more quickly than female patients ( P = .046).
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that OCA is a safe and reliable treatment option for osteochondral defects in patients aged ≥40 years. Male and female patients had similar outcomes. Patients aged <40 years demonstrated lower KOOS symptom subscores postoperatively compared with older patients, potentially attributable to higher expectations of return to function postoperatively as compared with older patients.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (2) Osteoarthritis (2), more mentions
The conditions of the meniscus and cartilage were graded with modified ISAKOS scores (International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine) and ICRS scores (International Cartilage Repair Society), respectively. Players with a previous meniscectomy of at least 10% of total medial or lateral meniscal volume excised (ISAKOS meniscus grade ≤8) and matched controls without a significant pre-Combine ...
BACKGROUND: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a developmental condition of subchondral bone that may result in secondary separation and instability of the overlying articular cartilage, which in turn may lead to degeneration of the overall joint and early osteoarthritis. Biphasic scaffolds have been developed to address defects of the entire osteochondral unit by reproducing the different biological and functional requirements and guiding the growth of both bone and cartilage.
PURPOSE: To evaluate midterm clinical and imaging results after cell-free osteochondral scaffold implantation for the treatment of knee OCD.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (8 women, 19 men; mean age, 25.5 ± 7.7 years) were treated for knee OCD, with International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3 to 4 lesions with a mean size of 3.4 ± 2.2 cm(2) (range, 1.5-12 cm(2)), and prospectively evaluated for up to 5 years using the ICRS classification system and the Tegner score. Eighteen patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 and 60 months of follow-up, and the graft was evaluated using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score for the cartilage layer, while a specific score was used for subchondral bone.
RESULTS: All patients significantly improved their clinical scores at each follow-up until their final evaluation. The mean International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score improved from 48.4 ± 17.8 to 82.2 ± 12.2 at 2 years ( P < .0005), and it then remained stable for up to 5 years postoperatively (90.1 ± 12.0). The mean Tegner score increased from 2.4 ± 1.7 preoperatively to 4.4 ± 1.6 at 2 years ( P = .001), with a further increase up to 5.0 ± 1.7 at 5 years of follow-up ( P < .0005 vs preoperatively), reaching almost the preinjury level (5.7 ± 2.2). The MOCART score showed stable results between 24 and 60 months, whereas the subchondral bone status significantly improved over time. No correlation was found between MRI findings and clinical outcomes.
CONCLUSION: This 1-step cell-free scaffold implantation procedure showed good and stable results for up to 60 months of follow-up for the treatment of knee OCD. MRI showed abnormalities, in particular at the subchondral bone level, but there was an overall improvement of features over time. No correlation was found between imaging and clinical findings.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (1) Osteochondritis Dissecans (3), Osteoarthritis (1), more mentions
BACKGROUND: A certain percentage of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction will experience graft failure, and there is mounting evidence that an increased posterior tibial slope (PTS) may be a predisposing factor. Theoretically, under tibiofemoral compression force (TFC), a reduced PTS would induce less anterior tibial translation (ATT) and lower ACL force.
HYPOTHESIS: Ten-degree anterior closing wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia will significantly reduce ACL force and alter knee kinematics during robotic testing.
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.
METHODS: Eleven fresh-frozen human knees were instrumented with a load cell that measured ACL force as the knee was flexing continuously from 0° to 50° under 200-N TFC as our initial testing condition, followed by the addition of the following tibial loads: 45-N anterior force (AF), 5-N·m valgus moment (VM), 2-N·m internal torque (IT), and all loads combined. ACL force and knee kinematics were recorded before and after osteotomy.
RESULTS: Osteotomy produced significant changes in the tibiofemoral position at full extension (as defined by a 2-N·m knee extension moment). This resulted in apparent knee hyperextension (9.4° ± 1.9°), posterior tibial translation (7.9 mm ± 1.6 mm), internal tibial rotation (3.2° ± 2.3°), and valgus tibial rotation (3.2° ± 1.5°). During straight knee flexion with TFC alone, osteotomy reduced ACL force to 0 N beyond 5° of flexion, and ATT was reduced between 0° and 45° ( P < .05). With TFC + AF, ACL force was reduced beyond 5° of flexion, and ATT was reduced between 5° and 45° ( P < .05). With TFC + VM, ACL force was less than 10 N beyond 5° of flexion, and ATT was reduced at all flexion angles ( P < .05). Under the loading conditions TFC + IT and TFC + IT + AF + VM, osteotomy did not significantly change ACL force or ATT at any flexion angle.
CONCLUSION: In general, osteotomy lowered ACL force and reduced ATT when IT was not present. The benefits of osteotomy were negated when IT was included possibly because the dominant mechanism of ACL force generation was cruciate impingement from internal winding and not ATT.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: PTS-reducing osteotomy significantly decreased ACL force and reduced ATT for knee loads that did not include IT.
Background: Limited information exists regarding the cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).
Objective: The study objective was to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 different combinations of exercise, manual therapy, and booster sessions for individuals with KOA.
Design: This economic evaluation involved a cost-effectiveness analysis performed alongside a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Setting: The study took place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Salt Lake City, Utah; and San Antonio, Texas.
Participants: The study participants were 300 individuals taking part in a randomized controlled trial investigating various physical therapy strategies for KOA.
Intervention: Participants were randomized into 4 treatment groups: exercise only (EX), exercise plus booster sessions (EX+B), exercise plus manual therapy (EX+MT), and exercise plus manual therapy and booster sessions (EX+MT+B).
Measurements: For the 2-year base case scenario, a Markov model was constructed using the US societal perspective and a 3% discount rate for costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated to compare differences in cost per QALY gained among the 4 treatment strategies.
Results: In the 2-year analysis, booster strategies (EX+MT+B and EX+B) dominated no-booster strategies, with both lower health care costs and greater effectiveness. EX+MT+B had the lowest total health care costs. EX+B cost $1061 more and gained 0.082 more QALYs than EX+MT+B, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $12,900/QALY gained.
Limitations: The small number of total knee arthroplasty surgeries received by individuals in this study made the assessment of whether any particular strategy was more successful at delaying or preventing surgery in individuals with KOA difficult.
Conclusions: Spacing exercise-based physical therapy sessions over 12 months using periodic booster sessions was less costly and more effective over 2 years than strategies not containing booster sessions for individuals with KOA.
Muscular and Skeletal Diseases (3) Knee Osteoarthritis (2), Osteoarthritis (1), more mentions
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of a combination of a minimalist shoe and increased cadence on measures of patellofemoral joint loading during running in individuals with patellofemoral pain.
DESIGN: Within-participant repeated measures with four conditions presented in random order: (1) control shoe at preferred cadence; (2) control shoe with +10% cadence; (3) minimalist shoe at preferred cadence; (4) minimalist shoe with +10% cadence.
METHODS: Fifteen recreational runners with patellofemoral pain ran on an instrumented treadmill while three-dimensional motion capture data were acquired. Peak patellofemoral joint stress, joint reaction force, knee extensor moment and knee joint angle during the stance phase of running were calculated. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the control condition (1) to the three experimental conditions (2-4).
RESULTS: Running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence reduced patellofemoral stress and joint reaction force on average by approximately 29% (p<0.001) compared to the control condition. Running in a minimalist shoe at preferred cadence reduced patellofemoral joint stress by 15% and joint reaction force by 17% (p<0.001), compared to the control condition. Running in control shoes at an increased cadence reduced patellofemoral joint stress and joint reaction force by 16% and 19% (p<0.001), respectively, compared to the control condition.
CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with patellofemoral pain, running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence had the greatest reduction in patellofemoral joint loading compared to a control shoe at preferred cadence. This may be an effective intervention to modulate biomechanical factors related to patellofemoral pain.
BACKGROUND: A hamstring autograft is commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR); however, there is evidence to suggest that the tendons harvested may contribute to medial knee instability.
HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the gracilis (G) and semitendinosus (ST) tendons significantly contribute to sagittal, coronal, and/or rotational knee stability in the setting of ACLR with a concurrent partial medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury.
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.
METHODS: Twelve human cadaveric knees were subject to static forces applied to the tibia including an anterior-directed force as well as varus, valgus, and internal and external rotation moments to quantify laxity at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. The following ligament conditions were tested on each specimen: (1) ACL intact/MCL intact, (2) ACL deficient/MCL intact, (3) ACL deficient/partial MCL injury, and (4) ACLR/partial MCL injury. To quantify the effect of muscle loads, the quadriceps, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, sartorius (SR), ST, and G muscles were subjected to static loads. The loads on the G, ST, and SR could be added or removed during various test conditions. For each ligament condition, the responses to loading and unloading the G/ST and SR were determined. Three-dimensional positional data of the tibia relative to the femur were recorded to determine tibiofemoral rotations and translations.
RESULTS: ACLR restored anterior stability regardless of whether static muscle loads were applied. There was no significant increase in valgus motion after ACL transection. However, when a partial MCL tear was added to the ACL injury, there was a 30% increase in valgus rotation ( P < .05). ACLR restored valgus stability toward that of the intact state when the G/ST muscles were loaded. A load on the SR muscle without a load on the G/ST muscles restored 19% of valgus rotation; however, it was still significantly less stable than the intact state.
CONCLUSION: After ACLR in knees with a concurrent partial MCL injury, the absence of loading on the G/ST did not significantly alter anterior stability. Simulated G/ST harvest did lead to increased valgus motion. These results may have important clinical implications and warrant further investigation to better outline the role of the medial hamstrings, particularly among patients with a concomitant ACL and MCL injury.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A concurrent ACL and MCL injury is a commonly encountered clinical problem. Knowledge regarding the implications of hamstring autograft harvest techniques on joint kinematics may help guide management decisions.
BACKGROUND: The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is frequently reconstructed to treat recurrent patellar instability. The femoral origin of the MPFL is well described in adults but not in the skeletally immature knee.
PURPOSE: To identify a radiographic landmark for the femoral MPFL attachment in the skeletally immature knee and study its relationship to the distal femoral physis.
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study.
METHODS: Thirty-six cadaveric specimens between 2 and 11 years old were dissected and examined (29 male and 7 female). Metallic markers were placed at the proximal and distal borders of the MPFL femoral origin footprint. Computed tomography scans with 0.625-mm slices in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were used to measure the maximum ossified height and ossified depth. The measurements were used to describe the position of the midpoint MPFL attachment with respect to the posterior-anterior and distal-proximal dimensions of the femoral condyle on the sagittal view and to describe the distance from the physis to the femoral origin of the MPFL.
RESULTS: In 23 of 36 specimens, the femoral origin of the MPFL was distal to the physis. Thirteen of the 36 specimens had an MPFL origin at or proximal to the physis, with a more proximal MPFL origin consistently seen in older specimens. The distance of the MPFL origin to the physis ranged from 15.1 mm distal to the physis to 8.3 mm proximal to the physis. The mean midpoint of the MPFL femoral origin was located 3.0 ± 5.5 mm distal to the physis for all specimens. For specimens aged <7 years, the mean MPFL origin was 4.7 mm distal to the physis, and for specimens aged ≥7 years, the mean MPFL origin was 0.8 mm proximal to the femoral physis. The MPFL origin was more proximal and anterior for those aged ≥7 years and more distal and posterior for those aged <7 years.
CONCLUSION: Surgical reconstruction of the MPFL is a common treatment to restore patellar stability. There appears to be significant variability in the origin of the MPFL in skeletally immature specimens. This study demonstrated that the MPFL origin was more proximal and anterior with respect to the physis in the older age group. The MPFL origin footprint may be customized for different age groups.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This information shows anatomic variation of the MPFL origin with age, with older specimens having a footprint that was more proximal and anterior than younger specimens. Customization of the surgical technique might be considered based on patient age.